Category Archives: illness

Exactly What Is Accreditation and How is it Different from Certification? by Dr. Dennis Frey

Accreditation is essentially a statement of approval.  In the United States, if it is to be meaningful, it must come from an independent association having attained its own approval from the United States Department of Education (USDE).  In the U.S., the government (USDE) does not accredit schools.  However, the USDE is in the business of approving the associations which do accredit schools (for the purpose of serving as gate keepers for Title IV Funding).  You must understand this if you are to properly understand accreditation. Title IV Funding is the nearly 60 billion dollar congressionally approved annual money stream that flows from taxpayers to educational institutions that are accredited by an agency approved by USDE.  The reason that USDE approves accrediting agencies is to assure quality control over the flow of Title IV Funds.  The greater part of accreditation requirements is geared toward satisfying the USDE mandated standards that are specifically designed to safeguard the huge taxpayer investment in higher education.

Accrediting associations in the U.S. are not required to seek USDE recognition, but without it, the value of such accreditation may be questionable, and schools they accredit are not eligible to receive Title IV Funds.  That is why schools promoting accreditation from sources not approved by the USDE are considered “unaccredited.”  BEWARE: There are dozens of so-called accrediting agencies (some with very official sounding names), that are nothing more than a fraud designed to deceive.

EXCEPTION: Accrediting agencies (just like schools), must first operate according to accepted practices and attract a sufficient number of clients before they can petition the USDE for possible acceptance.  Unrecognized agencies that are in a petitioning status with USDE, and are operating openly within the general parameters set forth by USDE (though still not considered recognized), ought to be considered valid, but their members’ schools are still not qualified for Title IV Funds.

The following quote is taken from the web site of the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA).  “There are accrediting organizations that may not be recognized but are not accreditation mills. For example, the accreditor may be seeking recognition, but the process is not complete. Or the accreditor does not meet the requirements of CHEA or USDE for reasons that do not relate to quality.”

Certification is also essentially a statement of approval, but significantly different from accreditation in several important ways.  Most importantly, certification is not tied to Title IV Funding.  Only USDE recognized accreditation qualifies institutions to receive such funding.  Certification is not generally recognized as being equivalent to accreditation since certification criteria is not geared toward satisfying the requirements for Title IV Funding.  Therefore, certifying agencies are not as well known, and their value not as readily appreciated.

Legitimate certification is similar to legitimate accreditation in that it also involves voluntary peer review through private agencies accountable to their constituents and the public at large, but not to the federal government since Title IV Funding is not involved.  Much of the misunderstanding that arises between the two is due to the lack of consumer awareness, and the generally held belief that accreditation is the only standard for academic legitimacy.  This is one reason why accreditation mills thrive while certification mills generally are not popular targets for scam artists.

Furthermore, certification is a term more often associated with professions, products, and processes.  For example, there are “Certified Financial Planners”, “USDA Certified Agricultural Products”, and “Procedures Certified” by certain medical associations.  Of course, the term “accredited” is also used in many of these situations.  This is because the two terms often serve as synonyms.  However, when it comes to higher education, accreditation is tied to Title IV Funding and certification is not.  Schools may be accredited but not certified, certified and not accredited or both or neither.  The important thing is that the school not misrepresent itself.

Exactly What is an Accredited Degree?

This may come as a shock, but in point-of-fact, there is no such thing as an accredited degree.  Only schools or programs within schools are accredited.  Period!  Look carefully at any degree earned from an accredited school, and you will not find one word that even suggests that it is an “accredited” degree.

If it does, you may be certain that the degree is bogus.  That’s because degrees are not accredited.  You can earn a degree from an accredited school or program within a school, but you cannot earn an accredited degree from that same school.  It may seem like only a matter of semantics, but it much more.  You can earn a degree from either an accredited or unaccredited school, but the degree you earn is neither accredited nor unaccredited.

Here is an example (admittedly extreme, but it makes the point):  Sam Smith graduated from MYU before it was accredited.  His degree is from an unaccredited school.  Sam’s son (Sam Jr.) graduated from MYU after it received accreditation.  Sam Jr. earned a degree from an accredited school.  Sam’s grandson graduated from MYU during the time that it lost its accreditation.  Sam III earned a degree from an unaccredited school.

Sam’s great grandson earned his degree from MYU after it regained its accreditation.  Sam IV earned a degree from an accredited school.  Now let’s look back, the fact that MYU was accredited when Sam Jr. attended, was of no consequence to Sam.  His degree was still earned at an unaccredited school.

Why?  Because there is no such thing as “grandfathering” when it comes to accreditation.  The same is true for Sam Jr. at the time MYU lost its accreditation.  Sam Jr. still earned a degree from an accredited school.  Why?  Because even though a school may lose its accreditation (it happens), there is no reverse of grandfathering.  The school will always be considered accredited at the time that it held accreditation, and unaccredited at the time it did not hold accreditation.  The bottom line, there is no such thing as an accredited degree.  One either earns a degree from an accredited or unaccredited school.  All accredited schools in the U.S. were at one time, unaccredited, and all accredited schools are subject to the loss of accreditation (it does happen).

Are Schools Required to Obtain Recognized Accreditation?

No.  For the most part, accreditation in the U.S. is strictly voluntary.  Many states require, or provide for, a kind of “state approval.”  However, this is not the same as accreditation.  There are many schools in the U.S. that operate as top-quality institutions with high academic standards and yet have elected to not seek accreditation.

The following quote is taken from the web site of the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA).  There are institutions that may not be accredited but are not degree mills. For example, the institution may be seeking accreditation, but the process is not complete. Or a legitimate institution may choose not to be accredited for reasons that do not relate to quality.

The following quote from the United States Department of Education makes the point. “It should be noted that some institutions have chosen not to participate in the federal student aid program and therefore do not have to be approved by an accrediting agency recognized by the Department. While these institutions do not appear on the Department’s list, they may be legitimate schools. Stroup encouraged consumers and employers to use the list as an initial source of information and to investigate further whenever an institution does not appear on the list.”  (February 1, 2005)

The former executive director of the Association for Biblical Higher Education (an accrediting agency recognized by the United States Department of Education), as quoted in that agency’s September 2005 quarterly publication stated that “There are hundreds of Bible Colleges and Seminaries in the United States and Canada that are offering good solid theological training, yet they are not accredited.  This would be the case with our Affiliate institutions that take advantage of the programs and services that we offer.”

Of course, all schools in the U.S. attempting to seek recognized accreditation must first operate as an unaccredited school and provide sufficient proof of institutional credibility prior to applying.  All accredited schools in the U.S. were, at one time, unaccredited.  In fact, the common qualifying procedure for schools seeking recognized accreditation is the development of a “Self Study” through which the institution demonstrates, to the satisfaction of the accrediting agency, that it is operating in a manner sufficiently consistent with the criteria required for accreditation. On a practical level, this demonstrates that it is possible for an unaccredited school to operate at a level generally equivalent to that of an accredited school.  The very same logic can be applied to certification as well.

What Are Some Advantages of Recognized Accreditation?

Access to government sponsored or approved student loans and grants (Title IV Funds).

Easier recognition for transfer of its credits to other accredited schools.

Easier recognition of its degrees by other schools and organizations.

Greater likelihood of acceptance of its students by other schools for further study.

Greater probability of the recognition of its educational programs meeting the qualifications for some goals, requirements, and licenses.

What Are Some Disadvantages of Recognized Accreditation?

More difficult entrance requirements into its programs of study.

Program requirements which may limit certain individuals or prevent them from being accepted into its programs.

Significantly higher tuition and related costs for all programs of study.

Less accommodating schedules and course offerings.

Fewer options for the older or nontraditional student.

What Are Some Advantages of Not Having Recognized Accreditation?

Less difficult entrance requirements for desirable programs of study.

Lower tuition and related costs making it possible to graduate without debt.

More accommodating program schedules and course offerings making it possible for busy adults to study anywhere anytime.

Unaccredited schools are likely to be more innovative and liberal in the development of specialized courses, unique study concepts, the use of emerging technology, and the design of nontraditional certificate and degree programs.  In this regard they are often pioneers and early adopters.

Providing the school is properly dedicated to its mission, the student will have an opportunity to gain an education comparable to that offered at accredited schools for similar courses and programs, but at a fraction of the total cost.

What Are Some Disadvantages of Not Having Recognized Accreditation?

No access to government sponsored or approved student loans and grants (Title IV Funds).

Transfer of credits earned may be more difficult.

Acceptance of graduates by accredited schools for further study more difficult.

The recognition of educational qualifications earned for meeting some goals may be problematic.

Certain licenses and professional requirements may not permit the acceptance of degrees earned from unaccredited schools.

Does Recognized Accreditation Assure A Quality Education?

No.  Even though recognized accreditation is a very good indicator that a program meets acceptable standards, the quality of an education is still largely dependent upon the value of the course content, the background and competency of the instructor, and the willingness of the student to get the most out of the course.  It is quite possible to attend even a top-rated accredited school and obtain an inferior education.  No level of accreditation can force a professor to do her or his best, and no professor, however gifted and dedicated, can force a student to learn.  It’s always possible for a less than sincere person to beat the system.

Can A Program Without Recognized Accreditation Provide A Quality Education?

Yes!  Again, since the quality of an education is largely dependent upon the value of the course content, the background and competency of the instructor, and the willingness of the student to get the most out of the course, it is quite possible to attend a well organized unaccredited school and receive a first-class education.  In fact, there is no reason why the level of learning between an accredited and unaccredited program offering similar courses and programs should not be comparable.  The honest student truly seeking to learn, will quickly discover whether the program is meeting the need.  If the course of study is meeting the need, and the student is doing her or his best, whether the school is accredited or not may be immaterial.
Beware of those who suggest that there is “no reason to attend an unaccredited school.”  Such logic suggests that there is no need for new schools, or for the older and established schools to become accredited.  How so?  In order to become an accredited school, an unaccredited school must first demonstrate through a pattern of evidence [to the satisfaction of the accrediting agency], that it is operating in a manner sufficiently consistent with the criteria required for accreditation.  In other words, in order for any school to become accredited, there must be a sufficient period of time during which the school is unaccredited but operating as if it were accredited, before it can be accredited.  This cannot be done unless the school is enrolling and graduating students!  Furthermore, without the pressure from innovative and immerging institutions, competition would be stifled, resulting in fewer choices and even higher tuition.

Will a Degree Earned Through an Unaccredited School be Accepted and Considered Legitimate?

This depends upon what is meant by accepted and legitimate.  Here is the blunt truth.  There is a difference between a legitimate degree and a degree earned legitimately!  Depending on the law of any given state or country, even a cheap degree may be legally legitimate.  But was it legitimately earned?  A degree is legitimately earned providing the entrance requirements, course work, and completion requirements are appropriate for the degree awarded (whether it is earned through an accredited or unaccredited institution).

Will a Degree from an Unaccredited School be Accepted by My Church or Place of Employment?

While there certainly are some situations when only a degree from an accredited school can qualify one for certain positions and privileges, for the most part, you are judged and accepted on you, not the school from which you graduated.  Example: Are you already in ministry?  If so, when was the last time a member of your church asked you if you had a degree at all, much less if it was earned at an accredited college or seminary?

CAUTION!  Do not fall victim to the myth that earning a degree from an accredited school is a ticket to ministry success.  It is not.  Ministry is one of those places where what you do with what you know trumps everything else.  In fact, for those already serving in ministry, a degree from a highly credible though unaccredited school may be the most logical choice.  We ought never to forget that especially in the Christian tradition, academic freedom is considered a cornerstone of religious liberty.  Of course, so is academic responsibility!  Therefore, any program of study leading to a theological degree ought to be both Biblically sound, and academically honest.

However, if you are concerned whether your church or place of employment will accept you with a degree earned through a credible though unaccredited school, you are strongly urged to ask!  Even in the case of degrees earned from accredited schools, there may be restrictions on what kind of degree is recognized, and what kinds of schools are considered acceptable.  For example, in some cases, denominations and ministries may not accept degrees from secular schools, or schools not affiliated with the group.

Will a Degree or Credits Earned Through an Unaccredited School be Accepted  by Other Schools?

First of all, it should be understood that no school is required to accept credits ore degrees from another school (accredited or unaccredited).  However, generally speaking, degrees earned through unaccredited schools will often be recognized by other unaccredited schools providing the school meets the standards of the receiving school, and the learning discipline is relevant.  On the other hand, most accredited schools will accept only a very limited number of students from unaccredited schools.  Such acceptance, when granted, is usually based on degree or credit relevancy, the coursework and degree requirements, and the background and ability of the person applying.  The bottom line…an accredited school may accept credits and degrees from an unaccredited school, but don’t count on it!  If this is a real issue for you, ask first!

However, in the case of Master’s, because of our commitment to educational excellence, credits and degrees earned a MISD have been accepted at many regularly accredited institutions.  In addition, MISD has formal agreements with several faith-based institutions of higher learning regarding the acceptance of credits and degrees, and friendly relations with more than ninety others.  Names of these institutions are available upon request.

Why is Master’s Certified, but not Accredited?

Master’s is a relatively young institution (founded March 30, 1999), and is not financially endowed as in the case of institutions associated with denominations .  The process of seeking and obtaining legitimate accreditation is one that requires considerable institutional resources, and a sufficient number of years of successful operation in order to be adequately prepared.

Since our founding in 1999, we have pursued a policy of developing a Divinity School that operates in a manner consistent with Biblical guidelines, and have promoted and maintained appropriate academic and business standards.  Consequently, we have received a remarkable level of credibility among our ministry peers.

This affirmation of institutional integrity has attracted thousands of students from around the world.  Our alumni serve in practically every ministry calling within the denominational and independent structures of the church-at-large.  A careful examination of our Endorsements and Cooperatives bears witness to this fact.  Our goal is to remain faithful to our mission and purpose, to continue to promote appropriate academic standards, and to be vigilant in our pursuit of institutional development.

Nevertheless, we do recognize and honor the value of legitimate academic and institutional peer review.  For this reason, Master’s has achieved certification with the Council of Private Colleges of America. The mission of the CPCA is to serve private faith based educational institutions through quality standards and practices.  The purpose of the CPCA is to promote quality faith based education, and provide support services for faith based educational institutions to accomplish their individual purpose and mission.  The CPCA represents member faith based educational institutions before government or other educational agencies, and provides certification to member faith based educational institutions through quality peer review and onsite certification visits verifying CPCA standards.

In addition, understanding the value of USDE recognized accrediting agencies, Master’s has achieved affiliated status with the Association for Biblical Higher Education (a USDE recognized agency).   As such, we participates in and contribute to collegial and professional development activities of the Association.  Our affiliate status does not, however, constitute, imply or presume ABHE accredited status at present or in the future.

Does Master’s Have A Plan to Seek Recognized Accreditation?

First, let’s make something quite clear…one of the “tricks” of unscrupulous schools is to falsely hold out the promise of accreditation sometime in the near future.  No unaccredited school can promise students that it is going to be accredited (and no accredited school can promise that it will always remain accredited).  Even though Master’s is currently engaged in the process of  preparing for recognized accreditation, if we are successful, that will have no bearing on degrees earned prior to accreditation (see above).  Furthermore, the process by which recognized accreditation is achieved can take years.  If you are seriously considering Master’s, and do not need to earn a degree from an already accredited institution, then your decision should be based upon our currently achieved level of credibility.

OK, but How Can I be Sure That Master’s International School of Divinity is Really Valid and of High Quality?

Check us out for yourself. DO NOT rely on published guide books, Internet message boards, blogs or chat rooms for accurate information (this holds true for any other school you may be considering). Such places as message boards and blogs are often populated by one or more “self-proclaimed experts” whom only rarely possess any actual first-hand knowledge about the schools they suppose themselves to be competent to rate (or rant against).  These individuals seem to crave whatever attention they may get from their pontifications.

In addition, the few books and online guides that profess to give “expert” guidance, are too often out-of-date or just plain wrong, simply because it is physically impossible for these individuals to actually visit the schools they profess to know about.  Consequently, information is notoriously inaccurate, out-of-date and suffers from the fact the few if any of the schools rated have received an actual on-site visit or even been afforded the benefit of submitting a formal validation document.  Information is usually gleaned from the internet, school catalogs as well as second and third-hand sources.  One serious indication of poor research is the use of unprofessional language and the strongly worded personal opinions of the author or compiler.  While such sources may provide some useful information, caution should be exercised when accepting information as accurate.

Furthermore, be aware that some unscrupulous admissions recruiters often profess to have “inside knowledge” in order to berate competing schools as a way of convincing you to enroll at the school they represent.  The only sure way is to check it out for yourself.  In the case of Master’s, read everything on our web site, call and speak with anyone or any organization named on the web site that is of interest to you. Request an academic evaluation for yourself, and ask every question that you think is important.  Don’t settle for anything less than a satisfactory answer. After that, you will be able to make an informed decision.

IMPORTANT:  Please visit us in person if that is possible.  These days, legitimate schools are trying very hard to present themselves as best they can by having a first-rate web site (such as Master’s is trying to do).  However, easy degree mills and outright degree mills are also doing so.  That’s why a visit can be worth a thousand pictures!  Of course, you may not be able to visit, but perhaps you have a friend or a colleague from your church or business contacts who may be able to come on your behalf, if so, we would be pleased to meet with them in your place.  If none of these options are practical, you may wish to contact the Council of Private Colleges of America.  The on-site team that recommended our five-year certification will be able to answer any questions concerning the quality of Master’s.

Ten Commandments for  Degree Mills

1.  Thou shalt seduce them with ridiculously low tuition.

2.  Thou shalt boast of being accredited by a worthless agency.

3.  Thou shalt offer as many different degree titles as possible.

4.  Thou shalt give life-experience credit for everything.

5.  Thou shalt not require too much work for anything.

6.  Thou shalt not refuse anyone entrance into any program.

7.  Impress them with your “accredited” faculty, they won’t know that there is no such thing.

8.  Always appeal to their vanity by offering them what they “deserve.”

9.  Provide high quality printed degrees and transcripts to deflect questions about the  low quality of the program.

10. Encourage skeptics to visit your web site, discourage them from visiting your office.


Interesting Biblical Facts

50 of 101 scientific facts 

1. – The earth free-floats in space (Job 26:7), affected only by gravity. While other sources declared the earth sat on the back of an elephant or turtle, or was held up by Atlas, the Bible alone states what we now know to be true – “He hangs the earth on nothing.”

2. – Creation is made of particles, indiscernible to our eyes (Hebrews 11:3). Not until the 19th century was it discovered that all visible matter consists of invisible elements.

3. – The Bible specifies the perfect dimensions for a stable water vessel (Genesis 6:15). Ship builders today are well aware that the ideal dimension for ship stability is a length six times that of the width. Keep in mind, God told Noah the ideal dimensions for the ark 4,500 years ago.

4. – When dealing with disease, clothes and body should be washed under running water (Leviticus 15:13). For centuries people naively washed in standing water. Today we recognize the need to wash away germs with fresh water.

5. – Sanitation industry birthed (Deuteronomy 23:12-13). Some 3,500 years ago God commanded His people to have a place outside the camp where they could relieve themselves. They were to each carry a shovel so that they could dig a hole (latrine) and cover their waste. Up until World War I, more soldiers died from disease than war because they did not isolate human waste.

6. – Oceans contain springs (Job 38:16). The ocean is very deep. Almost all the ocean floor is in total darkness and the pressure there is enormous. It would have been impossible for Job to have explored the “springs of the sea.” Until recently, it was thought that oceans were fed only by rivers and rain. Yet in the 1970s, with the help of deep diving research submarines that were constructed to withstand 6,000 pounds-per-square-inch pressure, oceanographers discovered springs on the ocean floors!

7. – There are mountains on the bottom of the ocean floor (Jonah 2:5-6). Only in the last century have we discovered that there are towering mountains and deep trenches in the depths of the sea.

8. – Joy and gladness understood (Acts 14:17). Evolution cannot explain emotions. Matter and energy do not feel. Scripture explains that God places gladness in our hearts (Psalm 4:7), and ultimate joy is found only in our Creator’s presence – “in Your presence is fullness of joy” (Psalm 16:11).

9. – Blood is the source of life and health (Leviticus 17:1114). Up until 120 years ago, sick people were “bled” and many died as a result (e.g. George Washington). Today we know that healthy blood is necessary to bring life-giving nutrients to every cell in the body. God declared that “the life of the flesh is in the blood” long before science understood its function.

10. – The Bible states that God created life according to kinds (Genesis 1:24). The fact that God distinguishes kinds, agrees with what scientists observe – namely that there are horizontal genetic boundaries beyond which life cannot vary. Life produces after its own kind. Dogs produce dogs, cats produce cats, roses produce roses. Never have we witnessed one kind changing into another kind as evolution supposes. There are truly natural limits to biological change.

11. – Noble behavior understood (John 15:13Romans 5:7-8). The Bible and history reveal that countless people have endangered or even sacrificed their lives for another. This reality is completely at odds with Darwin’s theory of the survival of the fittest.

12. – Chicken or egg dilemma solved (Genesis 1:20-22). Which came first, the chicken or the egg? This question has plagued philosophers for centuries. The Bible states that God created birds with the ability to reproduce after their kind. Therefore the chicken was created first with the ability to make eggs! Yet, evolution has no solution for this dilemma.

13. – Which came first, proteins or DNA (Revelation 4:11)? For evolutionists, the chicken or egg dilemma goes even deeper. Chickens consist of proteins. The code for each protein is contained in the DNA/RNA system. However, proteins are required in order to manufacture DNA. So which came first: proteins or DNA? The ONLY explanation is that they were created together.

14. – Our bodies are made from the dust of the ground (Genesis 2:73:19). Scientists have discovered that the human body is comprised of some 28 base and trace elements – all of which are found in the earth.

15. – The First Law of Thermodynamics established (Genesis 2:1-2). The First Law states that the total quantity of energy and matter in the universe is a constant. One form of energy or matter may be converted into another, but the total quantity always remains the same. Therefore the creation is finished, exactly as God said way back in Genesis.

16. – The first three verses of Genesis accurately express all known aspects of the creation (Genesis 1:1-3). Science expresses the universe in terms of: time, space, matter, and energy. In Genesis chapter one we read: “In the beginning (time) God created the heavens (space) and the earth (matter)…Then God said, “Let there be light (energy).” No other creation account agrees with the observable evidence.

17. – The universe had a beginning (Genesis 1:1Hebrews 1:10-12). Starting with the studies of Albert Einstein in the early 1900s and continuing today, science has confirmed the biblical view that the universe had a beginning. When the Bible was written most people believed the universe was eternal. Science has proven them wrong, but the Bible correct.

18. – The earth is a sphere (Isaiah 40:22). At a time when many thought the earth was flat, the Bible told us that the earth is spherical.

19. – Scripture assumes a revolving (spherical) earth (Luke 17:34-36). Jesus said that at His return some would be asleep at night while others would be working at day time activities in the field. This is a clear indication of a revolving earth, with day and night occurring simultaneously.

20. – Origin of the rainbow explained (Genesis 9:13-16). Prior to the Flood there was a different environment on the earth (Genesis 2:5-6). After the Flood, God set His rainbow “in the cloud” as a sign that He would never again judge the earth by water. Meteorologists now understand that a rainbow is formed when the sun shines through water droplets – which act as a prism – separating white light into its color spectrum.

21. – Light can be divided (Job 38:24). Sir Isaac Newton studied light and discovered that white light is made of seven colors, which can be “parted” and then recombined. Science confirmed this four centuries ago – God declared this four millennia ago!

22. – Ocean currents anticipated (Psalm 8:8). Three thousand years ago the Bible described the “paths of the seas.” In the 19th century Matthew Maury – the father of oceanography – after reading Psalm 8, researched and discovered ocean currents that follow specific paths through the seas! Utilizing Maury’s data, marine navigators have since reduced by many days the time required to traverse the seas.

23. – Sexual promiscuity is dangerous to your health (1 Corinthians 6:18Romans 1:27). The Bible warns that “he who commits sexual immorality sins against his own body,” and that those who commit homosexual sin would “receive in themselves” the penalty of their error. Much data now confirms that any sexual relationship outside of holy matrimony is unsafe.

24. – Reproduction explained (Genesis 1:27-282:24Mark 10:6-8). While evolution has no mechanism to explain how male and female reproductive organs evolved at the same time, the Bible says that from the beginning God made them male and female in order to propagate the human race and animal kinds.

25. – Incalculable number of stars (Jeremiah 33:22). At a time when less than 5,000 stars were visible to the human eye, God stated that the stars of heaven were innumerable. Not until the 17th century did Galileo glimpse the immensity of our universe with his new telescope. Today, astronomers estimate that there are ten thousand billion trillion stars – that’s a 1 followed by 25 zeros! Yet, as the Bible states, scientists admit this number may be woefully inadequate.

26. – The number of stars, though vast, are finite (Isaiah 40:26). Although man is unable to calculate the exact number of stars, we now know their number is finite. Of course God knew this all along – “He counts the number of the stars; He calls them all by name” (Psalm 147:4). What an awesome God!

27. – The Bible compares the number of stars with the number of grains of sand on the seashore (Genesis 22:17Hebrews 11:12). Amazingly, gross estimates of the number of sand grains are comparable to the estimated number of stars in the universe.

28. – Rejecting the Creator results in moral depravity (Romans 1:20-32). The Bible warns that when mankind rejects the overwhelming evidence for a Creator, lawlessness will result. Since the theory of evolution has swept the globe, abortion, pornography, genocide, etc., have all risen sharply.

29. – The fact that God once flooded the earth (the Noahic Flood) would be denied (2 Peter 3:5-6). There is a mass of fossil evidence to prove this fact, yet it is flatly ignored by most of the scientific world because it was God’s judgment on man’s wickedness.

30. – Vast fossil deposits anticipated (Genesis 7). When plants and animals die they decompose rapidly. Yet billions of life forms around the globe have been preserved as fossils. Geologists now know that fossils only form if there is rapid deposition of life buried away from scavengers and bacteria. This agrees exactly with what the Bible says occurred during the global Flood.

31. – The continents were created as one large land mass (Genesis 1:9-10). Many geologists agree there is strong evidence that the earth was originally one super continent – just as the Bible said way back in Genesis.

32. – Continental drift inferred (Genesis 7:11). Today the study of the ocean floor indicates that the landmasses have been ripped apart. Scripture states that during the global Flood the “fountains of the great deep were broken up.” This cataclysmic event apparently resulted in the continental plates breaking and shifting.

33. – Ice Age inferred (Job 38:29-30). Prior to the global Flood the earth was apparently subtropical. However shortly after the Flood, the Bible mentions ice often – “By the breath of God ice is given, and the broad waters are frozen” (Job 37:10). Evidently the Ice Age occurred in the centuries following the Flood.

34. – Life begins at fertilization (Jeremiah 1:5). God declares that He knew us before we were born. The biblical penalty for murdering an unborn child was death (Exodus 21:22-23). Today, it is an irrefutable biological fact that the fertilized egg is truly an entire human being. Nothing will be added to the first cell except nutrition and oxygen.

35. – God fashions and knits us together in the womb (Job 10:8-1231:15). Science was ignorant concerning embryonic development until recently. Yet many centuries ago, the Bible accurately described God making us an “intricate unity” in the womb.

36. – DNA anticipated (Psalm 139:13-16). During the 1950s, Watson and Crick discovered the genetic blueprint for life. Three thousand years ago the Bible seems to reference this written digital code in Psalm 139 – “Thine eyes did see my substance, yet being unperfect [unformed]; and in Thy book all my members were written, which in continuance were fashioned, when as yet there was none of them.”

37. – God has created all mankind from one blood (Acts 17:26; Genesis 5). Today researchers have discovered that we have all descended from one gene pool. For example, a 1995 study of a section of Y chromosomes from 38 men from different ethnic groups around the world was consistent with the biblical teaching that we all come from one man (Adam)

38. – Origin of the major language groups explained (Genesis 11). After the rebellion at Babel, God scattered the people by confounding the one language into many languages. Evolution teaches that we all evolved from a common ancestor, yet offers no mechanism to explain the origin of the thousands of diverse languages in existence today.

39. – Origin of the different “races” explained (Genesis 11). As Noah’s descendants migrated around the world after Babel, each language group developed distinct features based on environment and genetic variation. Those with a genetic makeup suitable to their new environment survived to reproduce. Over time, certain traits (such as dark skin color for those closer to the equator) dominated. Genesis alone offers a reasonable answer to the origin of the races and languages.

40. – God has given us the leaves of the trees as medicine (Ezekiel 47:12Revelation 22:2). Ancient cultures utilized many herbal remedies. Today, modern medicine has rediscovered what the Bible has said all along – there are healing compounds found in plants.

41. – Healthy dietary laws (Leviticus 11:9-12). Scripture states that we should avoid those sea creatures which do not have fins or scales. We now know that bottom-feeders (those with no scales or fins) tend to consume waste and are likely to carry disease.

42. – The Bible warns against eating birds of prey (Leviticus 11:13-19). Scientists now recognize that those birds which eat carrion (putrefying flesh), often spread disease.

43. – Avoid swine (Deuteronomy 14:8). Not so long ago, science learned that eating undercooked pork causes an infection of parasites called trichinosis. Now consider this: the Bible forbid the eating of swine more than 3,000 years before we learned how to cook pork safely.

44. – Radical environmentalism foreseen (Romans 1:25). Two thousand years ago, God’s Word stated that many would worship and serve creation rather than the Creator. Today, nature is revered as “Mother” and naturalism is enshrined.

45. – Black holes and dark matter anticipated (Matthew 25:30Jude 1:13Isaiah 50:3). Cosmologists now speculate that over 98% of the known universe is comprised of dark matter, with dark energy and black holes. A black hole’s gravitational field is so strong that nothing, not even light, escapes. Beyond the expanding universe there is no measured radiation and therefore only outer darkness exists. These theories paint a seemingly accurate description of what the Bible calls “outer darkness” or “the blackness of darkness forever.”

46. – The Second Law of Thermodynamics (Entropy) explained (Psalm 102:25-26). This law states that everything in the universe is running down, deteriorating, constantly becoming less and less orderly. Entropy (disorder) entered when mankind rebelled against God – resulting in the curse (Genesis 3:17Romans 8:20-22). Historically most people believed the universe was unchangeable. Yet modern science verifies that the universe is “grow(ing) old like a garment” (Hebrews 1:11). Evolution directly contradicts this law.

47. – Cain’s wife discovered (Genesis 5:4). Skeptics point out that Cain had no one to marry – therefore the Bible must be false. However, the Bible states plainly that Adam and Eve had other sons and daughters. Cain married his sister.

48. – Incest laws established (Leviticus 18:6). To marry near of kin in the ancient world was common. Yet, beginning about 1500 B.C., God forbid this practice. The reason is simple – the genetic mutations (resulting from the curse) had a cumulative effect. Though Cain could safely marry his sister because the genetic pool was still relatively pure at that time, by Moses’ day the genetic errors had swelled. Today, geneticists confirm that the risk of passing on a genetic abnormality to your child is much greater if you marry a close relative because relatives are more likely to carry the same defective gene. If they procreate, their offspring are more apt to have this defect expressed.

49. – Genetic mixing of different seeds forbidden (Leviticus 19:19Deuteronomy 22:9). The Bible warns against mixing seeds – as this will result in an inferior or dangerous crop. There is now growing evidence that unnatural, genetically engineered crops may be harmful.

50. – Hydrological cycle described (Ecclesiastes 1:7Jeremiah 10:13Amos 9:6). Four thousand years ago the Bible declared that God “draws up drops of water, which distill as rain from the mist, which the clouds drop down and pour abundantly on man” (Job 36:27-28). The ancients observed mighty rivers flowing into the ocean, but they could not conceive why the sea level never rose. Though they observed rainfall, they had only quaint theories as to its origin. Meteorologists now understand that the hydrological cycle consists of evaporation, atmospheric transportation, distillation, and precipitation.

Other Books To Read

1. Much To Talk About Vol. 1
2. Much To Talk About Vol. 2
2. Archaeology and the Unwary Believer

Recommended Reading

Just some books that should be on anyone’s reading list

1. The Battle of Beginnings — Dr. Del Ratzsch

2. Unearthing Atlantis — Dr. Charles Pellegrino

3. Return to Sodom & Gomorrah —Same

4. On the reliability of the Old Testament — K.A. Kitchen

5. The Bible in Its World —Same

6. Old Testament Times — Dr. R.K. Harrison

7. New Testament Times —Dr. Merril C. Tenney

8. Archaeology & the New Testament — DR. John McRay

9. A History of Christianity, 2 Vols. —Dr. Kenneth Scott Latourette

10. Ancient Egypt & the O.T. —Dr. John Currid

11. Israel in Egypt — Dr. James Hoffmeier

12. The Riddles of the Exodus — James Long

13. The Flood — Dr.Rehwinkel

14. Path of the Pole — Dr. Charles Hapgood

15. Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings — Same

16. Is the Bible True — Jeffery Sheler

17. Lost Discoveries —Dick Teresi

18. In the Beginning— Alister McGrath

19. Fabricating Jesus— Dr. Craig Evans

20. Early Christian Doctrines—J.N.D. Kelly
21. The Rape of Nanking by Iris Chang
22. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee by Dee Brown
23. The Long Death by Ralph K. Andrist
24. Band of Brothers by Stephen Ambrose
25. Bible History by Alfred Edersheim
26. The Death of Common Sense by Philip K. Howard
27. The Professor and the Madman by Simon Winchestor
28. A History of the American People by Paul Johnson
29. A History of the Arab Peoples by Albert Hourani
30. The Kingdom of the Cults by Walter Martin
31. The Final Theory by Mark McCutcheon
32. Unwrapping the Pharaohs by Ashton & Down
33. The Road to Ubar by Nicholas Clapp
34. The Destruction of Atlantis by Frank Joseph
35. The History of Christianity, 2 vols. by Justo Gonzalez
36. Manners and Customs of the Bible by Packer & Tenney

37. The Historical Jesus by Gary R. Habermas

38. The Concise History of Free Masonry by Robert Freke Gould

39. Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader by Bradley K. Martin

40. The Aquariums of Pyongyang by Kang Chol-Hwan & Pierre Rigoulot

41. The End of Reason by Ravi Zacharias

42. The Lost Books of the Bible (everyone should read this for themselves and see why they were never included in the biblical canon)

43. The Land of the Bible by Yohanan Aharoni

44. Archaeology of the Land of the Bible by Amihai Mazar

45. The New Testament Documents by F. F. Bruce

46. Israel & the Nations by F. F. Bruce

47. Israelite Religions by Richard S. Hess

48. The Catholic Church, (a short history) by Hans Kung

49. Knowing and Doing the Will of God by J. I. packer

50. The Case for Christ by Lee Strobel

51. Civilization Before Greece & Rome by H.W.F. Saggs

52. Ninevah and Its Remains by Austen Henry Layard

53. The Discoveries by Alan Lightman

54. Mesopotamia and the Bible edited by Mark W. Chavalas & K. Lawson Younger Jr.

55. Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia by Karen Rhea Nejat

56. The City of David by Raymond Weill & L.H. Vincent

57. The Ancient Near East vols. 1 & 2 ed. by James B. Pritchard

58. Old Testament Parallels by Victor H. Matthews & Don C. Benjamin

59. Libraries in the Ancient World by Lionel Casson

60. Africa & the Bible by Edwin M. Yamauchi

61. The Portable Seminary  Gen. Editor David Horton

62. Christian Counseling By Dr. Gary Collins

63. The Dawkins Delusion By Alistar & Joanna McGrath

64. The Politically Incorrect Guide to the Bible By Robert J. Hutchinson

65. What Are the Dead Sea Scrolls & Why Do They Matter by David Noel Freedman

66. The Search for the 12 Apostles By William Steuart McBirnie

67. The First Human by Ann Gibbons

68. Biblical Creationism By Henry Morris

69. The Long War against God By Hemry Morris

70. Kingdom Coming By Michelle Goldberg

71. The Truth About Mohammad by Robert Spencer

72. Learning Theology with the Church Fathers by Christopher A. Hall

73. Giving the Sense edited by Drs. Howard Jr. & Grisanti

74. The Old Testament Documents by Walter Kaiser

75. Civilizations of the Near East (4 vols) Edited by Jack M. Sasson

76.  Biblical Authority by Draper & Keathley

77. God Has Spoken by J.I. Packer

78. 100 Reasons to Trust the Old Testament by Murray D. Hiebert

79. Eusebius: the church history trans. & comm. by Paul L. Maier

80. Searching for the Original Bible by Dr. Randall Price
81. A Century of Biblical Archaeology by P.R.S. Moorey
82. Persia and the Bible by Edwin Yamauchi
83. The Archaeology of Jersualem by W. Harold Mare
84. Science & Secrets or Early medicine by Jorgen Thorwald
85. Underworld by Graham Hancock (for evidence only)
86. Heaven’s Mirror by Graham Hancock (for evidence only)
87. Big Bang by Simon Singh (for a history of astronomy only)
88. The Biblical Period from Abraham to Ezra by W. F. Albright
89. The Archaeology of Palestine by W. F. Albright
90. History, Archaeology & Christian Humanism by W.F. Albright
91.The Bible & Modern Scholarship by Sir Frederic Kenyon
92. Our Bible & the Ancient Manuscripts by Sir Frederic Kenyon
93. Biblical Archaeology by G. Ernest Wright
94. Fresh Light from the Ancient Monuments by A.H. Sayce
95. The Ancent Egyptians: Their life and Customs by Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson

In The News 22


California’s Department of Public Health released statistics revealing that 111 terminally ill people chose to end their lives last year under the state’s right-to-die law, despite pleas in the past from Roman Catholic leaders and influential California pastor Rick Warren

We understand why people want this bill to exist, not just in California adn the other States that have them, but all around the world. We understand that people do not want to endure pain, suffering nor add to their mounting medical bills or put their family in poverty because of those bills. YET, we also know what God says about killing– Thou Shalt Not Kill– and while many theologians and pastors have come to agree that the word kill here means murder, patient’s with terminal illnesses should not kill themselves. They, and the successful suicidal person, are actually murdering themselves and violating God’s command.

Then while we do not think that those who kill themselves go straight to hell, why take the chance? God is in charge of who gets into heaven and there is no reason to violate God’s word and then expect him to welcome you with open arms. It is best to let the disease run its course and ask God to help you endure.


A prominent LGBT activist who has donated more than anyone else to LGBT causes has said that “wicked” people who advocate for laws protecting the religious freedom of conservative Christians to act in accordance with their views on marriage and sexuality need to be “punished.”

What can we say, those who demand entrance into an institution they have no right to enter turn around and try to beat up those who do have that right. They just prove that they do not belong in the institution and need great attitude adjustments before consideration of their ‘application’.  The governments and courts have not done society any favors by their favorable rulings for the LGBTQ crowd.


Polls showing rising numbers of evangelicals supporting same-sex marriage show the influence of culture and failures of churches, according to two experts interviewed by The Christian Post

This is just wrong. Evangelicals should be standing up for God’s standards of right and wrong, good and evil, moral and immorality instead of listening to the unchurched world distort the issues and lead people to sin. There is no such thing as discrimination when it comes to those standards.


A strong majority of Anglicans in the U.K. say they no longer adhere to biblical beliefs on premarital sex and same-sex relationships, according to the British Social Attitudes survey

That is because they want to do what they want and do not want to do what God wants


A new report produced by one of the nation’s leading social conservative activist organization claims that there has been 76 percent increase in religious freedom violations and a 114 percent surge in documented hostility toward Christian views on marriage and sexuality in the last three years.

They are actually hating Jesus and God not Christians. God made the rules, Christians just brig the message and it is up to the listener how they will respond.


Several leading evangelical organizations in America have urged U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson to stand up to the destruction of churches and severe forms of persecution Christians and others face in Sudan

It is not just the government’s job to tackle these issues. Then, just because a believer is persecuted or n trouble does not mean that other believers do not help them


An evangelical Christian group in the U.K. says it’s in “shock” that Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby’s “outstanding service to the church” award has been given to Christian lesbian singer Vicky Beeching.

When the church does not stand up for God’s ways, who will?



Ancient Medicine

One of the best books I have read on ancient medicine is Science and Secrets of Early Medicine by Jurgen Thorwald. It covers the civilizations of Egypt, Babylonia, India, China , Mexico and Peru and it gives a well-balanced look at the ancient world’s practice of medicine.

I will put a few quotes here from the work and then move on to articles that have been found on the internet. The page numbers follow each quote:

–“An anonymous Sumerian physician, who lived toward the end of the third millennium BC, decided to collect and record, for his colleagues and students, his more valuable medical prescriptions.  He prepared a tablet of moist clay…sharpened a reed stylus…and wrote down, in the cuneiform script of his day, more than a dozen of his favorite remedies. This clay document, the oldest medical ‘handbook’ known to man, lay buried in the Nippur ruins for more than four thousand years'” (pg. 107)

–“It turned out that the doctors of a nation, whose artists had been able to re[present the female body  with such accuracy…had also dealt knowledgeably with the weaknesses and afflictions of that body. They described hemorrhages, menstrual irregularities, tumours, inflammations of various abdominal organs and of the breasts, and displacements of the womb…” (pg. 99)

–“Father Bernardino de Sahagun, who drew up a definitive account of the Aztec Empire, noted that in addition to priests, soothsayers and magicians, there were genuine apothecaries and physicians among the Aztecs. To some extent the specialization of the doctors is reminiscent of Ancient Egypt. In particular, there were specialists in the treatment of wounds. They sewed edges of wounds with human hair, set fractures and applied splints. In case o fbroken bones which would not heal, they inserted splintersof wood of a certain type of stone pine into the bones. With small obsidian knives they opened abscesses of the tonsils… ” (pg. 269-70)

–“Texts scratched on bones of the Shang period…show that the Shang priests in the second millennium BC, devoted great care to identifying symptoms and diseases. There are references to various complaints of the head, to maladies of the eyes, the teeth, the organs of the throat, the nose, legs, digestive system, kidneys and bladder. Above all there are mentions of infectious diseases and epidemics” (pg. 234)

–{Hammurabi’s law} “If a physician has healed a man’s eye of a severe wound by employing a bronze instrument, or has opened the spot in a man’s eye with a bronze instrument and so healed the man’s eye, he is to be paid 10 shekel for his work. (pg.124)


Due to the hot and dry climate in Egypt, ancient papyri have survived intact, allowing historians to study the sophisticated techniques employed by Ancient Egyptian physicians. Whilst couched in magic and ritual, the Egyptians possessed a great deal of knowledge of healing herbs and repairing physical injuries, amongst the normal population and the workers responsible for building the great monuments of that nation.

Cropped version of image of a prosthetic toe from ancient Egypt, now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo

Cropped version of image of a prosthetic toe from ancient Egypt, now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo (Released from Copyright)

Modern research has shown that these builders were not slaves but highly respected and well-treated freemen, and the care and treatment given for injuries and afflictions was centuries ahead of its time. Early paid retirement, in case of injury, and sick leave were some of the farsighted policies adopted by Ancient Egyptian medicine, luxuries that would rarely be enjoyed by most workers until well into the 20th Century.

The Egyptians made sure that the laborers were fed a diet rich in radish, garlic and onion, which modern researchers have found to be extremely rich in Raphanin, Allicin and Allistatin. These powerful natural antibiotics would certainly help to prevent outbreaks of disease in the often-crowded conditions of the workcamps.



The oldest Babylonian texts on medicine date back to the Old Babylonian period in the first half of the 2nd millennium BC. The most extensive Babylonian medical text, however, is the Diagnostic Handbook written by the physician Esagil-kin-apli of Borsippa, during the reign of the Babylonian king Adad-apla-iddina (1069- 1046 BC). Along with contemporary ancient Egyptian medicine, the Babylonians introduced the concepts of diagnosis, prognosis, physical examination, and medical prescriptions.

In addition, the Diagnostic Handbook introduced the methods of therapy and etiology and the use of empiricism, logic and rationality in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. The text contains a list of medical symptoms and often detailed empirical observations along with logical rules used in combining observed symptoms on the body of a patient with its diagnosis and prognosis.


The Atharvaveda, a sacred text of Hinduism dating from the Early Iron Age, is the first Indian text dealing with medicine, like the medicine of the Ancient Near East based on concepts of the exorcism of demons and magic. The Atharvaveda also contain prescriptions of herbs for various ailments. The use of herbs to treat ailments would later form a large part of Ayurveda.

In the first millennium BCE, there emerges in post-Vedic India the traditional medicine system known as Ayurveda, meaning the “complete knowledge for long life”. Its two most famous texts belong to the schools of Charaka, born c. 600 BCE, and Sushruta, born 600 BCE. The earliest foundations of Ayurveda were built on a synthesis of traditional herbal practices together with a massive addition of theoretical conceptualizations, new nosologies and new therapies dating from about 400 BCE onwards, and coming out of the communities of thinkers who included the Buddha and others.


Surgical techniques in the ancient world could be surprisingly advanced. The famous Roman physician Galen (c. 129–199 A.D.), who was born in the city of Pergamum near the Asklepion, is generally regarded as the most accomplished medical researcher of the Roman world, and some of his surgical procedures would not be seen again until modern times. He successfully conducted cataract surgeries by inserting a needle behind the lens of the eye in order to remove the cataract, and his described methods of preparing a clean operating theater reveal a keen awareness of contagion.1 While some of Galen’s practices and theories are still followed and praised by physicians today, others, such as his rejection of the stomach wall as having no role in digestion, have been proven by modern science to be erroneous…

Archaeology has further illuminated medical practices in the ancient world. Certain skeletons discovered during excavations demonstrate evidence of rather astonishing surgical successes. Perhaps the most startling evidence of sophisticated ancient surgery can be found in skulls that show signs of trepanation, a procedure still used today that is performed by drilling a hole into the skull to relieve intracranial pressure. Trepanated skulls from ancient societies in Central and South America, Africa, Asia, Europe and the Near and Middle East have been found that perhaps date back as far as the Mesolithic period, about 12,000 years ago.2 By examining the bone regrowth around the surgical hole in the skull, scientists are able to determine how long the patient survived after undergoing the procedure. Some patients died immediately, some lived only a few weeks, but others seem to have healed completely…

Excavations have also revealed evidence of sophisticated dental practices in antiquity. In a mass grave at Horvat en Ziq in the northern Negev desert of Israel, a skull dating to about 200 B.C. was found that contains one of the earliest known dental fillings. A 2.5-millimeter bronze wire had been inserted into the tooth’s canal.**** Elsewhere, skulls recovered from the catacombs in Rome, which were in use during the first through the fifth centuries A.D., exhibit some rather pricey dental work: Several were recovered that have gold fillings.


When one is down with a flu, one can easily walk over to a clinic nearby for a checkup and obtain some medicine for flu. This medicine can come in many forms, such as in syrup and in tablets. Ever wondered what medicine in the past was like then?”

It was discovered that the ancient Egyptians were among the first to use certain herbs and drugs as a form of medicine. They also knew how to set and splint fractured bones, using skills that were so advanced and even rather similar to the way many doctors treat their patients today. More surprisingly, there is evidence that some surgery was also practiced in ancient Egypt. However, during that time, there was no knowledge of the use of aesthesia and the method used to render a patient unconscious was to strike him on the head with a mallet! Imagine how dangerous that was! (How many patients that blow could have killed!)

Surgery was also said to have been practised by the Babylonians of Mesopotamia, though the techniques used were more advanced than the Egyptians’. There was even a collection of laws set up and compiled in “The Code of Hammurabi” in about 1800 BC, which listed the penalties that had to be paid by unsuccessful surgeons. For instance, if the patient lost an eye because of faulty surgery, the surgeon had to pull out his own eye too! It’s definitely a wonder how some of the Babylonians still dared to practice medicine given such strict laws!


Mesopotamian Medicine: The Sources

Most of the information available to modern scholars comes from cuneiform tablets. There are no useful pictorial representations that have survived in ancient Mesopotamian art, nor has a significant amount of skeletal material yet been analyzed. Unfortunately, while an abundance of cuneiform tablets have survived from ancient Mesopotamia, relatively few are concerned with medical issues. Many of the tablets that do mention medical practices have survived from the library of Asshurbanipal, the last great king of Assyria. The library of Asshurbanipal was housed in the king’s palace at Nineveh, and when the palace was burned by invaders, around 20,000 clay tablets were baked (and thereby preserved) by the great fire. In the early 1920’s, the 660 medical tablets from the library of Asshurbanipal were published by Cambell Thompson. Other medical texts have been published more recently. For example, Franz Kocher has published a series of volumes called Die Babylonishch-Assyrische Medizin. The first four of these contain 420 tablets found from sites other than Assurbanipal’s library, including the library of a medical practitioner (an asipu) from Neo-Assyrian Assur, as well as Middle Assyrian and Middle Babylonian texts. The remaining two volumes of Kocher’s work augment Campbell Thompson, providing new joins of broken fragments and much material uncovered in the British Museum. At least one more volume of Nineveh texts has been announced. In addition, the series Spaet Babylonische Texte aus Uruk contains some 30 medical texts not included in Kocher’s work. The vast majority of these tablets are prescriptions, but there are a few series of tablets that contained entries that were directly related to one another, and these have been labeled “treatises.” The largest surviving such medical treatise from ancient Mesopotamia is known as “Treatise of Medical Diagnosis and Prognoses.” The text of this treatise consists of 40 tablets collected and studied by the French scholar R. Labat. Although the oldest surviving copy of this treatise dates to around 1600 BCE, the information contained in the text is an amalgamation of several centuries of Mesopotamian medical knowledge. The diagnostic treatise is organized in head to toe order with separate subsections covering convulsive disorders, gynecology and pediatrics. It is unfortunate that the antiquated translations available at present to the non-specialist make ancient Mesopotamian medical texts sound like excerpts from a sorceror’s handbook. In fact, as recent research is showing, the descriptions of diseases contained in the diagnostic treatise demonstrate a keen ability to observe and are usually astute. Virtually all expected diseases can be found described in parts of the diagnostic treatise, when those parts are fully preserved, as they are for neurology, fevers, worms and flukes, VD and skin lesions. The medical texts are, moreover, essentially rational, and some of the treatments, as for example those designed for excessive bleeding (where all the plants mentioned can be easily identified), are essentially the same as modern treatments for the same condition.


Part One

Whoever having undertaken to speak or write on Medicine, have first laid down for themselves some hypothesis to their argument, such as hot, or cold, or moist, or dry, or whatever else they choose (thus reducing their subject within a narrow compass, and supposing only one or two original causes of diseases or of death among mankind), are all clearly mistaken in much that they say; and this is the more reprehensible as relating to an art which all men avail themselves of on the most important occasions, and the good operators and practitioners in which they hold in especial honor. For there are practitioners, some bad and some far otherwise, which, if there had been no such thing as Medicine, and if nothing had been investigated or found out in it, would not have been the case, but all would have been equally unskilled and ignorant of it, and everything concerning the sick would have been directed by chance. But now it is not so; for, as in all the other arts, those who practise them differ much from one another in dexterity and knowledge, so is it in like manner with Medicine. Wherefore I have not thought that it stood in need of an empty hypothesis, like those subjects which are occult and dubious, in attempting to handle which it is necessary to use some hypothesis; as, for example, with regard to things above us and things below the earth; if any one should treat of these and undertake to declare how they are constituted, the reader or hearer could not find out, whether what is delivered be true or false; for there is nothing which can be referred to in order to discover the truth.

Part Two

But all these requisites belong of old to Medicine, and an origin and way have been found out, by which many and elegant discoveries have been made, during a length of time, and others will yet be found out, if a person possessed of the proper ability, and knowing those discoveries which have been made, should proceed from them to prosecute his investigations. But whoever, rejecting and despising all these, attempts to pursue another course and form of inquiry, and says he has discovered anything, is deceived himself and deceives others, for the thing is impossible. And for what reason it is impossible, I will now endeavor to explain, by stating and showing what the art really is. From this it will be manifest that discoveries cannot possibly be made in any other way. And most especially, it appears to me, that whoever treats of this art should treat of things which are familiar to the common people. For of nothing else will such a one have to inquire or treat, but of the diseases under which the common people have labored, which diseases and the causes of their origin and departure, their increase and decline, illiterate persons cannot easily find out themselves, but still it is easy for them to understand these things when discovered and expounded by others. For it is nothing more than that every one is put in mind of what had occurred to himself. But whoever does not reach the capacity of the illiterate vulgar and fails to make them listen to him, misses his mark. Wherefore, then, there is no necessity for any hypothesis.


“The earliest evidence of ancient dentistry we have is an amazingly detailed dental work on a mummy from ancient Egypt that archaeologists have dated to 2000 BCE. The work shows intricate gold work around the teeth. This mummy was found with two donor teeth that had holes drilled into them. Wires were strung through the holes and then around the neighboring teeth.” Source: metalonmetal blog.

I’m not quite convinced that this is the “earliest evidence” of ancient dentistry. I think there are some written texts that go back even further than 2000 BCE. Also, in the spirit of full disclosure I also have not located the site where this was found. Still, This is a fascinating item. The close-up below comes from the site


The roots of dentistry extend back many millennia across the globe. Evidence from the Indus Valley Civilization in Pakistan reveals dentistry being practiced as early as 7,000 BC, with practitioners using bow drills to cure tooth ailments. By contrast, a Sumerian text from 5,000 BC cites teeth worms as the source of dental decay. Evidence of this belief has also been found in ancient China, India, Japan and Egypt, in the writings of Homer, and as late as 1300 AD in the writings of surgeon Guy to Chauliac.

2,600 BC marked the death of Hesy-Re, the Egyptian scribe who has been called the first “dentist”. Remains of some ancient Egyptians and Greco-Romans also reveal early attempts at dental prosthetics and surgery, and it is believed that Egyptians practiced oral surgery from as early as 2,500 BC. Later, between 1,700 and 1,550, the Egyptian text Edwin Smith Papyrus makes references to various tooth maladies and remedies. In the 18th century BC, the Babylonian Code of Hammurabi makes two references to dental extraction as a form of punishment.

Early tooth replacement took place in Phoenicia, now Lebanon, as missing teeth were replaced with animal teeth and bound in place using cord.

Between 500 and 300 BC, both Hippocrates and Aristotle wrote about dentistry, including the eruption patterns of teeth, treating teeth decay and gum disease, extracting teeth using forceps, and using wires to stabilize loose teeth and fractured jaws. However, the Etruscans, in what is now Northern and Central Italy, were the first to truly perform restorative dentistry, with everything from dental bridges to partial dentures of gold appearing in Etruscan tombs, dating to 500 BC. The Romans later captured the Etruscans and adopted elements of their culture. Thus, dentistry became a Roman practice as well. Around 100 BC, Roman writer Cornelius Celcus wrote extensively about oral hygiene, stabilising loose teeth, and treating various dental ailments.

In the Eastern world, there is evidence in China of the use of silver amalgam as fillings as early as 200 BC. Oral medicine was also commonplace in early Japan and India. Dental surgery, however, was not practiced in many Islamic countries, because of the Qur’an proscription against mutilations of the body. As a result, preventative dentistry became particularly important in these areas. Writings of Arabic physicians such as Avicenna and Abū al-Qāsim, demonstrate the importance of the cleaning of teeth.


The torment of toothache is surely something we all have in common with our ancestors. Interestingly, those living in Ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome may not have had as many cavities as modern societies due to the lack of sugar and processed food. However, their teeth were worn down by their coarse diet, which required much chewing. In Egypt, archaeologists have discovered sand in preserved food and this must have exacerbated the problem. Natural teeth were valued if an article in the Roman Law of the Twelve Tables, c 450BC, is to be believed. It states: ‘Whoever shall cause the tooth of a free man to be knocked out shall pay a fine of three hundred as’.

The Romans are well known for their cleanliness and this may have extended to their teeth with Celsus (c 25BC–c 50AD) recommending that city dwellers should wash their mouths out in the morning. Ancient recipes for toothpaste survive with ingredients such as bones, egg shells, pumice and myrrh although there is no mention of toothbrushes. The Greeks used mint, still a famililar ingredient in toothpaste for us today.

It was during the Roman period that toothache sufferers gained their own patron saint. Apollonia was the daughter of a magistrate in Alexandria who stood up for her Christian faith. Dionysius says ‘a mob… broke her teeth and threatened to burn her alive’. As she was being consumed by the fire she called out that those who suffered from toothache and invoked her name would be relieved of their suffering.

Early cures for toothache may seem strange to us. The Ancient Egyptians wore amulets whilst the Roman writer Pliny recommended finding a frog by moonlight and asking it to take away your toothache. A further cure, according to Scribonius Largus, doctor to the Emperor Claudius in the first century involved ‘fumigations made with the seeds of the hyoscyamus scattered on burning charcoal…followed by rinsings of the mouth with hot water, in this way… small worms are expelled’. The belief that cavities are caused by toothworms is a long standing one, held by the Ancient Egyptians right up to the 17th century. If these cures seem bizarre, we should remember some similarities – a mouthrinse for the tongue in Ancient Egypt contained honey, just the same as our cure for a sore throat.

References to dentists appear in Ancient Egyptian papyri and in a couple of tombs but what they did, if anything, is not clear: they could just have been honorary titles. In the Roman empire, extractions were undertaken by physicians. They used crude forceps, and dentures were made from ivory, bone or boxwood! Getting a good fit must have been a problem as Horace (c 65 BC–c 8BC) describes two witches running so fast that one of their denture’s fell out. The Romans’ predecessors in northern Italy, the Etruscans, made beautiful bridges of ox bone with gold wire, the quality of which was not to be seen again for well over a millenium.


9,000 Year Old Dentistry in Pakistan

The land that forms modern day Pakistan has been home to a plethora of ancient cultures including the advanced, Indus Valley Civilization. One researcher team examined skulls excavated from a graveyard in the country’s Baluchistan region. Carbon dating revealed those bones to over 9,000 years old and a closer study revealed that 11 skulls had nearly perfectly drilled dental holes in their teeth. This discovery has indicated that the art of dentistry is actually 4,000 years older than previously estimated.

According to reports, the reason for the drilled holes are unknown, but the fact that it was not just for decoration is clear as some of the teeth were hard to reach molars. One of the holes was one-seventh of an inch (3.5 millimeters) deep, which is quite unfathomable for a time when sedation dentistry was not an option.

Greeks, the First Orthodontists

During the reign of the Greek Empire, Hippocrates and Aristotle were known as having some of the biggest brains out there. Hippocrates was an ancient physician (known for being the force behind the Hippocratic Oath still upheld in the medical community today) and Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and polymath. Together, the two often discussed malocclusion and how gentle force could be applied to gradually shift teeth. Those chats and their early experimentation helped pave the wave for today’s field of orthodontics.

The two produced some of the earliest writing about dentistry and explored topics including the pattern in which teeth erupted and gum disease. Rumor has it the two also performed work on teeth impacted by tooth decay, tooth extractions and used wires to stabilize teeth and jawbones.

European Barber/Dentist

Facial hair is a favorite male accessory, but the need for soldiers to be clean shaven (as decreed by Alexander the Great) helped launch barbers as a major profession. With each new generation of leaders, barbers evolved to deliver the hottest trend and they were completely content with everything hair until the clergy (the medical experts of the 1100 century) needed their help with bloodletting (the cure for all ails of the time period). Only after the clergy were banned from drawing blood at the council of Tours in 1163, did the burden fall onto barbers. Eventually, they also became the folks responsible for implementing dental care (

For hundreds of years, barbers provided those in need with tooth extractions to stop pain and remove teeth that had chronic infections. That changed when patients complained that the barber delivered dental treatments were making them sick and British Parliament officially severed the alliance between the barbers and surgeons in June, 1745.


613 Laws

The 613 Old Testament Commandments

The following information comes from WILLMINGTON’S GUIDE TO THE BIBLE by Dr. H. L. Willmington TYNDALE HOUSE PUBLISHERS, INC. Wheaton, Illinois and are placed here for research and edification purposes only

The total number of the biblical commandments (precepts and prohibitions) is given in rabbinic tradition as 613. It is held that all 613 were revealed to Moses at Mt. Sinai, and that they fall into two classifications. 1.    Mandatory laws—248 in number, corresponding to the limbs of the human body (divided into eighteen sections). 2.    Prohibition laws—365 in number, equal to the solar days in a year (divided into thirteen sections).

The Mandatory Commandments


1.    One must believe that God exists (Ex. 20:2).

2.    Acknowledge his unity (Deut. 6:4).

3.    Love God (Deut. 6:5).

4.    Fear God (Deut. 6:13).

5.    Serve God (Ex. 23:25; Deut. 11:13).

6.    Cleave to God (Deut. 10:20).

7.    Swear only by his name (Deut. 10:20).

8.    Imitate God (Deut. 28:9).

9.    Sanctify God’s name (Lev. 22:32).


10.    The shema must be recited each morning and evening (Deut. 6:7).

11.    Study the Torah and teach it to others (Deut. 6:7).

12.    The Tefillin must be bound on one’s head (Deut. 6:8).

13.    It should be also bound on one’s arm (Deut. 6:8).

14.    A zizit is to be made for the garments (Num. 15:38).

15.    A mezuzah is to be fixed on the door (Deut. 6:9).

16.    The people are to assemble every seventh month to hear the Torah read (Deut. 31:12).

17.    The king must write a special copy of the Torah for himself (Deut. 17:18).

18.    Each Jew should have a Torah scroll for himself (Deut. 31:19).

19.    God is to be praised after meals (Deut. 8:10).

Temple and the Priest

20.    The Jews should build a Temple (Ex. 25:8).

21.    They should respect it (Lev. 19:30).

22.    It must be guarded at all times (Num. 18:4).

23.    The Levites should perform their special duties in it (Num. 18:23).

24.    Before entering the Temple or participating in its service, the priests must wash their hands and feet (Ex. 30:19).

25.    The priests must light the candelabrum daily (Ex. 27:20, 21).

26.    The priests must bless Israel (Num. 6:23).

27.    They must set the shewbread and frankincense before the altar (Ex. 25:30).

28.    The incense must be burned twice daily on the golden altar (Ex. 30:7).

29.    Fire shall be kept burning on the altar continually (Lev. 6:13).

30.    The ashes are to be removed daily (Lev. 6:10, 11).

31.    Ritually unclean persons must be kept out of the Temple (Num. 5:2).

32.    Israel is to honor its priests (Lev. 21:8).

33.    The priests must be dressed in special priestly raiment (Ex. 28:2).

34.    The ark is to be carried on the shoulders of the priests (Num. 7:9).

35.    The oil used in anointing must be prepared according to a special formula (Ex. 30:31). 3

6.    The priestly families should officiate in rotation (Deut. 18:6-8).

37.    In honor of certain dead close relatives, the priests should make themselves ritually unclean (Lev. 21:2, 3).

38.    The high priest may marry only a virgin (Lev. 21:13).


39.    The tamid sacrifice must be offered twice daily (Num. 28:3).

40.    The high priest must also offer a meal offering twice daily (Lev. 6:13).

41.    An additional sacrifice (musaf) should be offered every Sabbath (Num. 28:9).

42.    One shall also be offered on the first of every month (Num. 28:11).

43.    A musaf is to be offered on each of the seven days of Passover (Lev. 23:36).

44.    On the second day of Passover a meal offering of the first barley must also be brought (Lev. 23:10).

45.    On Shavuot a musaf must be offered (Num. 28:26, 27).

46.    Two loaves of bread must be offered as a wave offering (Lev. 23:17).

47.    An additional sacrifice must be made on Rosh Ha-Shanah (Num. 29:1, 2).

48.    Another offering must be made on the day of atonement (Num. 29:7, 8).

49.    On this day the avodah must also be performed (Lev. 16).

50.    On every day of the festival of Sukkot a musaf must be brought (Num. 29:13).

51.    It is to be brought also on the eighth day thereof (Num. 29:36).

52.    Every male Jew should make pilgrimage to the Temple three times a year (Ex. 23:14).

53.    He must appear there during the three pilgrim festivals (Ex. 34:23; Deut. 16:16).

54.    One should rejoice on the festivals (Deut. 16:14).

55.    On the fourteenth of Nisan one should slaughter the paschal lamb (Ex. 12:6).

56.    The lamb is then to be roasted and eaten on the night of the fifteenth (Ex. 12:8).

57.    Those who were ritually impure in Nisan should slaughter the paschal lamb on the fourteenth of Lyyar (Num. 9:11).

58.    It should then be eaten with mazzah and bitter herbs (Ex. 12:8; Num. 9:11).

59.    Trumpets should be sounded when the festive sacrifices are brought, and also in times of tribulation (Num. 10:10).

60.    Cattle to be sacrificed must be at least eight days old (Lev. 22:27).

61.    They must also be without blemish (Lev. 22:21).

62.    All offerings must be salted (Lev. 2:13).

63.    It is a mitzvah to perform the ritual of the burnt offering (Lev. 1:2).

64.    This is also true with the sin offering (Lev. 6:18).

65.    This is also true with the guilt offering (Lev. 7:1).

66.    This is also true with the peace offering (Lev. 3:1).

67.    This is also true with the meal offering (Lev. 2:1; 6:7).

68.    Should the Sanhedrin err in a decision, its members must bring a sin offering (Lev. 4:13).

69.    This offering must also be brought by a person who has unwittingly transgressed a karet (Lev. 4:27).

70.    When in doubt as to whether one has transgressed such a prohibition, a “suspensive” guilt offering must be brought (Lev. 5:17, 18).

71.    For stealing or swearing falsely and for other sins of like nature, a guilt offering must be brought (Lev. 5:15; 19:20, 21; 21-25).

72.    In special circumstances the sin offering can be according to one’s means (Lev. 5:1-11).

73.    One must confess one’s sins before God and repent for them (Num. 5:6, 7).

74.    A man who has a seminal issue must bring a sacrifice (Lev. 15:13-15).

75.    A woman who has an issue must bring a sacrifice (Lev. 15:28, 29).

76.    A woman must also bring a sacrifice after childbirth (Lev. 12:6).

77.    A leper must bring a sacrifice after he has been cleansed (Lev. 14:10). 78.    One must tithe one’s cattle (Lev. 27:32).

79.    The firstborn of clean (permitted) cattle are holy and must be sacrificed (Ex. 13:2).

80.    The firstborn of man must be redeemed (Ex. 22:28; Num. 18:15).

81.    The firstling of the ass must be redeemed (Ex. 34:20).

82.    If not, its neck is to be broken (Ex. 13:13).

83.    Animals set aside as offerings must be brought to Jerusalem without delay (Deut. 12:5, 6).

84.    They may be sacrificed only in the Temple (Deut. 12:14).

85.    Offerings from outside the land of Israel may also be brought to the Temple (Deut. 12:26).

86.    Sanctified animals which have become blemished must be redeemed (Deut. 12:15).

87.    A beast exchanged for an offering is also holy (Lev. 27:33).

88.    The priests should eat the remainder of the meal offering (Lev. 6:9).

89.    They also are to eat of the flesh of sin and guilt offerings (Ex. 29:33).

90.    But consecrated flesh which has become ritually unclean must be burned (Lev. 7:19).

91.    Also, that flesh not eaten within its appointed time must be burned (Lev. 7:17).


92.    A Nazarite must let his hair grow during the period of his separation (Num. 6:5).

93.    When that period is over he must shave his head and bring his sacrifice (Num. 6:18).

94.    A man must honor his vows and his oaths (Deut. 23:24).

95.    These can only be annulled in accordance with the law (Num. 30:3).

Ritual Purity

96.    Anyone who touches a carcass becomes ritually unclean (Lev. 11:8, 24).

97.    Anyone who touches one of the eight species of reptiles becomes ritually unclean (Lev. 11:29-31).

98.    Food becomes unclean by coming into contact with a ritually unclean object (Lev. 11:34).

99.    Menstruous women are ritually impure (Lev. 15:19).

100.    After childbirth women are ritually impure for seven days (Lev. 12:2).

101.    A leper is ritually unclean (Lev. 13:3).

102.    A leprous garment is ritually unclean (Lev. 13:51).

103.    A leprous house is unclean (Lev. 14:44).

104.    A man having a running issue is unclean (Lev. 15:2).

105.    Semen is unclean (Lev. 15:16).

106.    A woman suffering from a running issue is unclean (Lev. 15:19).

107.    A human corpse is unclean (Num. 19:14).

108.    The purification water purifies the unclean, but it makes the clean ritually impure (Num. 19:13, 21).

109.    It is a mitzvah to become ritually clean by ritual immersion (Lev. 15:16).

110.    To become cleansed of leprosy one must follow the specified procedures (Lev. 14:2).

111.    He must shave off all of his hair (Lev. 14:9).

112.    Until cleansed, the leper must be bareheaded with clothing in disarray so as to be easily distinguishable (Lev. 13:45).

113.    The ashes of the red heifer are to be used in the process of ritual purification (Num. 19:2-9).

Donations to the Temple

114.    If a person undertakes to give his own value to the Temple he must do so (Lev. 27:2-8).

115.    If a man declares an unclean beast as a donation to the Temple he must give the animal’s value in money as fixed by the priest (Lev. 27:11, 12).

116.    This is true concerning a house (Lev. 27:14). 117.    This is true concerning a field (Lev. 27:16, 22, 23).

118.    If one unwittingly derives benefits from Temple property, full restitution plus a fifth must be made (Lev. 5:16).

119.    The fruit of the fourth year’s growth of trees is holy and may be eaten only in Jerusalem (Lev. 19:24).

120.    In reaping a field one must leave the corners for the poor (Lev. 19:9). 121.    The gleanings also must be left (Lev. 19:9).

122.    The forgotten sheaves must also be left (Deut. 24:19).

123.    The misformed bunches of grapes must also be left (Lev. 19:10).

124.    The gleanings of the grapes must also be left (Lev. 19:10).

125.    The firstfruits must be separated and brought to the Temple (Ex. 23:19).

126.    The great heave offering (terumah) must be separated and given to the priest (Deut. 18:4).

127.    One must give one tenth of his produce to the Levites (Lev. 27:30; Num. 18:24).

128.    A second tithe is to be separated and eaten only in Jerusalem (Deut. 14:22).

129.    The Levites must give a tenth of their tithe to the priests (Num. 18:26).

130.    In the third and sixth years of the seven-year cycle one was to separate a tithe for the poor instead of the second tithe (Deut. 14:28).

131.    A declaration was to be recited when separating the various tithes (Deut. 26:13).

132.    This was also required when bringing the firstfruits to the Temple (Deut. 26:5).

133.    The first portion of the dough must be given to the priest (Num. 15:20).

The Sabbatical Year

134.    In the seventh year everything that grows is ownerless and available to all (Ex. 23:11).

135.    The fields were to be fallow and the ground was not to be tilled (Ex. 34:21).

136.    The jubilee year (fiftieth) was to be sanctified (Lev. 25:10).

137.    On the day of atonement the shafar was to be sounded and all Hebrew slaves set free (Lev. 25:9).

138.    In the jubilee year all land was to be returned to its ancestral owners (Lev. 25:24).

139.    In a walled city the seller had the right to buy back a house within a year of the sale (Lev. 25:29, 30).

140.    Starting from entry into the land of Israel, the years of the jubilee must be counted and announced yearly and septennially (Lev. 25:8).

141.    In the seventh year all debts are annulled (Deut. 15:3).

142.    However, one could collect upon a debt owed by a stranger (Deut. 15:3).

Concerning Animals for Consumption

143.    A priest must receive his share of a slaughtered animal (Deut. 18:3).

144.    He also is to receive the first of the fleece (Deut. 18:4).

145.    A herem (special vow) must distinguish between that which belongs to the Temple and that which goes to the priests (Lev. 27:21, 28).

146.    To be fit for consumption, beast and fowl must be slaughtered according to the law (Deut. 12:21).

147.    If they are not of a domesticated species, their blood must be covered with earth after slaughter (Lev. 17:13).

148.    The parent bird was to be set free when taking the nest (Deut. 22:7).

149.    Beasts to be examined to see if they were permitted for consumption (Lev. 11:2).

150.    The same was true for fowls (Deut. 14:11).

151.    The same was true for locusts (Lev. 11:21).

152.    The same was true for fish (Lev. 11:9).

153.    The Sanhedrin was to sanctify the first day of every month and reckon the years and the seasons (Ex. 12:2; Deut. 16:1).


154.    One was to rest on the Sabbath (Ex. 23:12).

155.    This day was to be declared holy at its onset and termination (Ex. 20:8).

156.    On the fourteenth of Nisan all leaven was to be removed from each household (Ex. 12:15).

157.    On the fifteenth of Nisan the Exodus account must be related (Ex. 13:8).

158.    During the fifteenth the mazzah is to be eaten (Ex. 12:18).

159.    On the first day of Passover one must rest (Ex. 12:16).

160.    On the seventh day of Passover one must also rest (Ex. 12:16).

161.    Starting from the day of the first sheaf (sixteenth of Nisan) one shall count forty-nine days (Lev. 23:35).

162.    One was to rest on the Shavvot (Lev. 23).

163.    One was to rest on Rosh Ha-Shanah (Lev. 23:24).

164.    On the day of atonement one must fast (Lev. 16:29).

165.    On the day of atonement one must rest (Lev. 16:29, 31).

166.    One must rest on the first day of Sukkot (Lev. 23:35).

167.    One must rest on the eighth day of Sukkot (Lev. 23:36).

168.    During the festival of Sukkot, Israel was to dwell in booths (Lev. 23:42).

169.    Four kinds of trees were to be included in the booth construction (Lev. 23:40).

170.    On Rosh Ha-Shanah the shofar was to be sounded (Num. 29:1).


171.    Every male was to give half a shekel to the Temple annually (Ex. 30:12, 13).

172.    A prophet was to be obeyed (Deut. 18:15).

173.    A king was to be appointed (Deut. 17:15).

174.    The Sanhedrin was to be obeyed (Deut. 17:11).

175.    In case of division, the majority opinion would prevail (Ex. 23:2).

176.    Judges and officials shall be appointed in every town (Deut. 16:18).

177.    They shall judge the people impartially (Lev. 19:15).

178.    Whoever is aware of evidence must come to the court to testify (Lev. 5:1).

179.    Witnesses shall be examined thoroughly (Deut. 13:15).

180.    False witnesses shall have done to them what they intended to do to the accused (Deut. 19:19).

181.    Each unsolved murder requires the sacrifice of a red heifer (Deut. 21:4).

182.    Six cities of refuge should be established (Deut. 19:3).

183.    The Levites shall be given cities to live in (Num. 35:2).

184.    A fence should be built around one’s roof to protect others from potential hazards (Deut. 22:8).


185.    Idolatry and its appurtenances must be destroyed (Deut. 7:5; 12:2).

186.    A city which has been perverted must be treated according to the law (Deut. 13:17).

187.    The seven Canaanite nations were to be destroyed (Deut. 20:17).

188.    The memory of Amalek was to be blotted out (Deut. 25:19).

189.    The deeds of Amalek were to be blotted out (Deut. 25:17).


190.    All regulations concerning war were to be observed (Deut. 20:11, 12).

191.    A priest was to be appointed for special duties in times of war (Deut. 20:2).

192.    The military camp was to be kept in a sanitary condition (Deut. 23:14, 15).

193.    Each soldier was to be equipped with the necessary implements to assure this (Deut. 23:14).


194.    Stolen property must be restored to its owners (Lev. 6:4).

195.    Give charity to the poor (Lev. 25:35, 36; Deut. 15:8).

196.    When a Hebrew slave goes free, the owner must give him gifts (Deut. 15:14).

197.    The poor were to receive loans without interest (Ex. 22:24).

198.    A loan with interest was permitted to foreigners (Deut. 23:21).

199.    Restore a pledge to its owner if he needs it (Ex. 22:25; Deut. 24:13).

200.    Pay the worker his wages on time (Deut. 24:15).

201.    He is also to be permitted to eat of the produce with which he is working (Deut. 23:24, 25).

202.    Help must be given to unload an animal when necessary (Ex. 23:5).

203.    Help must be given to load man or beast when necessary (Deut. 22:4).

204.    Lost property must be restored to its owner (Ex. 23:4; Deut. 22:1).

205.    It is required to reprove the sinner (Lev. 19:17).

206.    It is required to love one’s neighbor as oneself (Lev. 19:18).

207.    One must also love the proselyte (Deut. 10:19).

208.    Weights and measures must be accurate (Lev. 19:36).


209.    Respect the wise (Lev. 19:32).

210.    Honor one’s parents (Ex. 20:12).

211.    Fear one’s parents (Lev. 19:3).

212.    One should marry to perpetuate the human race (Gen. 1:28).

213.    Marriage is to be governed by the law (Deut. 24:1).

214.    A bridegroom is to rejoice with his bride for one year (Deut. 24:5).

215.    Male children must be circumcised (Gen. 17:10; Lev. 12:3).

216.    If a man dies childless his brother should marry his widow (Deut. 25:5).

217.    If not, he must then release her (halizah) (Deut. 25:9).

218.    He who violates a virgin must marry her and may never divorce her (Deut. 22:29).

219.    If a man unjustly accuses his wife of premarital promiscuity he shall be flogged, and may never divorce her (Deut. 22:18, 19).

220.    The seducer must be punished according to the law (Ex. 22:15-23).

221.    The female captive must be treated in accordance with her special regulations (Deut. 21:11).

222.    Divorce could be executed only by means of a written document (Deut. 24:1).

223.    A woman suspected of adultery had to submit to the required test (Num. 5:15-27).


224.    As required by the law, the punishment of flogging must be administered (Deut. 25:2).

225.    The one guilty of unwitting homicide must be exiled (Num. 35:25).

226.    Capital punishment may be by the sword (Ex. 21:20).

227.    It may also be by strangulation (Ex. 21:16).

228.    It may also be by fire (Lev. 20:14).

229.    It may also be by stoning (Deut. 22:24).

230.    In some cases the body of the executed shall be hanged (Deut. 21:22).

231.    In this case the body must be buried on the same day (Deut. 21:23).


232.    Hebrew slaves must be treated according to the special laws for them (Ex. 21:2).

233.    The master should marry his Hebrew maidservant (Ex. 21:8).

234.    If not, he must redeem her (Ex. 21:8).

235.    The alien slave must be treated according to the regulations applying to him (Lev. 25:46).


236.    The applicable law must be administered in the case of injury caused by a person (Ex. 21:18).

237.    This is true if injury is caused by an animal (Ex. 21:28).

238.    This is true if injury is caused by a pit (Ex. 21:33, 34).

239.    Thieves must be punished (Ex. 21:36–22:3).

240.    Judgment must be rendered in cases of trespass by cattle (Ex. 22:4).

241.    This is true also in cases of arson (Ex. 22:5).

242.    This is true also in cases of embezzlement by an unpaid guardian (Ex. 22:6-8).

243.    This is also true in claims against a paid guardian (Ex. 22:9-12).

244.    This is also true in claims against a hirer or a borrower (Ex. 22:13).

245.    This is also true in disputes arising out of sales (Lev. 25:14).

246.    This is also true concerning inheritance disputes (Ex. 22:8).

247.    This is true in all other matters (Deut. 25:12).

248.    The persecuted are to be rescued even if it means killing the oppressor (Num. 27:8).

The Prohibition Commandments


Idolatry and Related Practices

1.    One must not believe in any but the one true God (Ex. 20:3).

2.    Do not make images for yourself (Ex. 20:4).

3.    Do not make images for others to worship (Lev. 19:4).

4.    Do not make images for any purpose (Ex. 20:20).

5.    Do not bow down to any image (Ex. 20:5).

6.    Do not serve any image (Ex. 20:5).

7.    Do not sacrifice children to Molech (Lev. 18:21).

8.    Do not practice necromancy (Lev. 19:31).

9.    Do not resort to familiar spirits (Lev. 19:31).

10.    Do not take the mythology of idolatry seriously (Lev. 19:4).

11.    Do not construct a pillar even for the worship of God (Deut. 16:22).

12.    Do not construct a dais for the same purpose (Lev. 20:1).

13.    Do not plant trees in the Temple (Deut. 16:21).

14.    Do not swear by idols or instigate an idolater to do so (Ex. 23:13).

15.    Do not encourage idol worship even by non-Jews (Ex. 23:13).

16.    Do not encourage Jews to worship idols (Deut. 13:12).

17.    Do not listen to anyone who disseminates idolatry (Deut. 13:8).

18.    Do not withhold from hating him (Deut. 13:9).

19.    Do not pity such a person (Deut. 13:9).

20.    Do not defend such a person (Deut. 13:9).

21.    Do not attempt to conceal his crime (Deut. 13:9).

22.    It is forbidden to derive any benefit from the ornaments of idols (Deut. 7:25).

23.    Do not rebuild destroyed idols (Deut. 13:17).

24.    Do not enjoy any benefit from its wealth (Deut. 13:18).

25.    Do not use anything connected with idols or idolatry (Deut. 7:26).

26.    It is forbidden to prophesy in the name of idols (Deut. 18:20).

27.    It is forbidden to prophesy falsely in the name of God (Deut. 18:20).

28.    Do not listen to the one who prophesies for idols (Deut. 13:3, 4).

29.    Do not fear the false prophet nor hinder his execution by death (Deut. 18:22).

30.    Do not imitate the ways of idolaters or practice their customs (Lev. 20:23).

31.    Do not practice their customs (Lev. 19:26).

32.    Do not practice their soothsaying (Deut. 18:10).

33.    Do not practice their enchanting (Deut. 18:10, 11).

34.    Do not practice their sorcery (Deut. 18:10, 11).

35.    Do not practice their charming (Deut. 18:10, 11).

36.    Do not imitate their consulting of ghosts (Deut. 18:10, 11).

37.    Do not imitate their speaking to familiar spirits (Deut. 18:10, 11).

38.    Do not imitate their necromancy (Deut. 18:10, 11).

39.    Women are not to wear male clothing (Deut. 22:5).

40.    Men are not to wear female clothing (Deut. 22:5).

41.    Do not tattoo yourself in the manner of the idolaters (Lev. 19:28).

42.    Do not wear garments made of both wool and linen (Deut. 22:11).

43.    Do not shave the sides of your head (Lev. 19:27).

44.    Do not shave your beard (Lev. 19:27).

45.    Do not lacerate yourself over your dead (Lev. 19:28; Deut. 14:1; 16:1).

Prohibitions Resulting from Historical Events

46.    It is forbidden to return to Egypt and dwell there permanently (Deut. 17:16).

47.    Do not indulge in impure thoughts or sights (Num. 15:39).

48.    Do not make a pact with the seven Canaanite nations (Ex. 23:32).

49.    Do not save the life of any of them (Deut. 20:16).

50.    Do not show mercy to idolaters (Deut. 7:2). 51.    Do not permit them to dwell in Israel (Ex. 23:33).

52.    Do not intermarry with them (Deut. 7:3).

53.    A Jewess may not marry an Ammonite or Moabite even if he converts to Judaism (Deut. 23:4).

54.    One should not hate a descendant of Esau because of his genealogy (Deut. 23:8).

55.    One should not hate an Egyptian because of his genealogy (Deut. 23:8).

56.    Do not make peace with the Ammonite or Moabite nations (Deut. 23:7).

57.    Fruit trees are forbidden to be destroyed even in times of war (Deut. 20:19).

58.    Do not fear your enemy (Deut. 7:21).

59.    Do not forget the evil done by Amalek (Deut. 25:19).


60.    Do not blaspheme the holy name (Lev. 24:16).

61.    Do not break an oath made by his holy name (Lev. 19:12).

62.    Do not take God’s name in vain (Ex. 20:7).

63.    Do not profane it (Lev. 22:32).

64.    Do not try the Lord God (Deut. 6:16).

65.    Do not erase God’s name from the holy texts or destroy institutions devoted to his worship (Deut. 12:4).

66.    Do not allow the body of one hanged to remain so overnight (Deut. 21:23).


67.    Be not lax in guarding the Temple. (Num. 18:5).

68.    The high priest must not enter the Temple indiscriminately (Lev. 16:2).

69.    A priest with a physical blemish may not enter there at all (Lev. 21:23).

70.    He cannot serve there even if the blemish is of a temporary nature (Lev. 21:17).

71.    He may not participate in the service there until it has passed (Lev. 21:18).

72.    The Levites and the priests must not interchange in their functions (Num. 18:3).

73.    Intoxicated persons may not enter the sanctuary or teach the law (Lev. 10:9-11).

74.    It is forbidden for non-priests to serve in the Temple (Num. 18:4).

75.    This is also true for unclean priests (Lev. 22:2).

76.    This is also true for priests who have performed the necessary ablution but are still within the time limit of their uncleanness (Lev. 21:6).

77.    No unclean person may enter the Temple (Num. 5:3).

78.    No unclean person may enter the Temple mount (Deut. 23:11).

79.    The altar must not be made of hewn stones (Ex. 20:25).

80.    The ascent leading to it must not be by steps (Ex. 20:26).

81.    The fire on it may not be extinguished (Lev. 6:6).

82.    Nothing but the specified incense may be burned on the golden altar (Ex. 30:9).

83.    Regular oil cannot be manufactured with the same ingredients as that of anointing oil (Ex. 30:32).

84.    Anointing oil cannot be misused (Ex. 30:32).

85.    Regular incense cannot be used on the golden altar (Ex. 30:37).

86.    Do not remove the staves from the ark (Ex. 25:15).

87.    Do not remove the breastplate from the ephod (Ex. 28:28).

88.    Do not make any incision in the upper garment of the high priest (Ex. 28:32).


89.    Do not offer sacrifices outside the Temple (Deut. 12:13).

90.    Do not slaughter consecrated animals outside the Temple (Lev. 17:3, 4).

91.    Do not sanctify a blemished animal (Lev. 22:20).

92.    Do not slaughter a blemished animal (Lev. 22:22).

93.    Do not sprinkle the blood of a blemished animal (Lev. 22:24).

94.    Do not burn the inner parts of a blemished animal (Lev. 22:22).

95.    Do not do any of the above even if the blemish is of a temporary nature (Deut. 17:1).

96.    Do not even allow a Gentile to offer such an animal (Lev. 22:25).

97.    Do not inflict a blemish on an animal consecrated for sacrifice (Lev. 22:21).

98.    Leaven or honey may not be offered on the altar (Lev. 2:11).

99.    Nothing unsalted may be offered on the altar (Lev. 2:13).

100.    An animal received as the hire of a harlot or as the price of a dog may not be offered (Deut. 23:19).

101.    Do not kill an animal and its young on the same day (Lev. 22:28).

102.    It is forbidden to use olive oil in the sin offering (Lev. 5:11).

103.    The same is true with frankincense (Lev. 5:11).

104.    Do not use olive oil in the jealousy offering (Num. 5:15).

105.    Do not use frankincense in the jealousy offering (Num. 5:15).

106.    Do not substitute sacrifices (Lev. 27:10).

107.    Do not take from one category and give to the other (Lev. 27:26).

108.    Do not redeem the firstborn of permitted animals (Num. 18:17).

109.    Do not sell the tithe of the herd (Lev. 27:33).

110.    Do not sell a field consecrated by the herem vow (Lev. 27:28).

111.    Do not redeem a field consecrated by the herem vow (Lev. 27:28).

112.    In slaughtering a bird for a sin offering, do not split its head (Lev. 5:8).

113.    Do not work with a consecrated animal (Deut. 15:19).

114.    Do not shear a consecrated animal (Deut. 15:19).

115.    Do not slaughter the paschal lamb while there is still leaven about (Ex. 34:25).

116.    Do not leave overnight those parts that are to be offered up (Ex. 23:10).

117.    Do not leave overnight those parts that are to be eaten (Ex. 12:10).

118.    Do not leave any part of the festive offering until the third day (Deut. 16:4).

119.    Do not leave any part of the second paschal lamb (Num. 9:13).

120.    Do not leave the thanksgiving offering until the morning (Lev. 22:30).

121.    Do not break a bone of the first paschal lamb (Ex. 12:46).

122.    Do not break a bone of the second lamb (Num. 9:12).

123.    Do not carry their flesh out of the house where it is being eaten (Ex. 12:46).

124.    Do not allow the remains of the meal offering to become leaven (Lev. 6:10).

125.    Do not eat the paschal lamb raw or sodden (Ex. 12:9).

126.    Do not allow an alien resident to eat of it (Ex. 12:45).

127.    Do not allow an uncircumcised person to eat of it (Ex. 12:48).

128.    Do not allow an apostate to eat of it (Ex. 12:43).

129.    A ritually unclean person must not eat of holy things (Lev. 12:4).

130.    Holy things which have become unclean must not be eaten (Lev. 7:19).

131.    Sacrificial meat which is left after the time-limit cannot be eaten (Lev. 19:6-8).

132.    Meat slaughtered with the wrong intentions cannot be eaten (Lev. 7:18).

133.    The heave offering cannot be eaten by a non-priest (Lev. 22:10).

134.    Neither can a priest’s sojourner or hired worker eat it (Rev. 22:10).

135.    Neither can an uncircumcised person eat it (Lev. 22:10).

136.    Neither can an unclean priest eat it (Lev. 22:4).

137.    The daughter of a priest who is married to a non-priest may not eat of holy things (Lev. 22:12).

138.    The meal offering of the priest must not be eaten (Lev. 6:16).

139.    The flesh of the sin offering sacrificed within the sanctuary may not be eaten (Lev. 6:23).

140.    Consecrated animals which have become blemished cannot be eaten (Deut. 14:3).

141.    Do not eat the second tithe of corn (Deut 12:17).

142.    Do not drink the second tithe of wine (Deut. 12:17).

143.    Do not eat the second tithe of oil (Deut. 12:17).

144.    Do not eat unblemished firstlings outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17).

145.    The priests may not eat the sin-offerings or the trespass-offerings outside the Temple courts (Deut. 12:17).

146.    Do not eat the flesh of the burnt offerings at all (Deut. 12:17).

147.    The lighter sacrifices may not be eaten before the blood has been sprinkled (Deut. 12:17).

148.    A non-priest may not eat of the holiest sacrifices (Deut. 12:17).

149.    A priest may not eat the firstfruits outside the Temple courts (Ex. 29:33).

150.    One may not eat the second tithe while in the state of impurity (Deut. 26:14).

151.    One may also not do this if in the state of mourning. (Deut. 26:14).

152.    Its redemption money may not be used for anything other than food and drink (Deut. 26:14).

153.    Do not eat untithed produce (Lev. 22:15).

154.    Do not change the order of separating the various tithes (Ex. 22:28).

155.    Do not delay payment of offerings, either freewill or obligatory (Deut. 23:22).

156.    Do not come to the Temple on the pilgrim festivals without an offering (Ex. 23:15).

157.    Do not break your word (Num. 30:3).


158.    A priest may not marry a harlot (Lev. 21:7).

159.    He may not marry a profane woman (Lev. 21:7).

160.    He may not marry a divorcee (Lev. 21:7).

161.    The high priest cannot marry a widow (Lev. 21:14).

162.    He cannot take a concubine (Lev. 21:15).

163.    Priests cannot enter the sanctuary with overgrown hair of the head (Lev. 10:6).

164.    They must not enter the sanctuary with torn clothing (Lev. 10:6).

165.    They must not leave the courtyard during the Temple service (Lev. 10:7).

166.    An ordinary priest may not render himself ritually impure except for those relatives specified (Lev. 21:1).

167.    The high priest cannot become impure for anybody (Lev. 21:11).

168.    He cannot become impure for any reason (Lev. 21:11).

169.    The tribe of Levi shall have no part in the division of the land of Israel (Deut. 18:1).

170.    The tribe of Levi shall not partake of the spoils of war (Deut. 18:1).

171.    It is forbidden to make oneself bald as a sign of mourning for one’s dead (Deut. 14:1).

Dietary Laws

172.    A Jew may not eat unclean cattle (Deut. 14:7).

173.    He may not eat unclean fish (Lev. 11:11).

174.    He may not eat unclean fowl (Lev. 11:13).

175.    He may not eat creeping things that fly (Deut. 14:19).

176.    He may not eat creatures that creep upon the ground (Lev. 11:41).

177.    He may not eat reptiles (Lev. 11:44).

178.    He may not eat worms found in fruit or produce (Lev. 11:42).

179.    He may not eat any detestable creature (Lev. 11:43).

180.    He cannot eat an animal that has died naturally (Deut. 14:21).

181.    He cannot eat a torn or mauled animal (Ex. 22:30).

182.    He cannot eat any limb taken from a living animal (Deut. 12:23).

183.    He cannot eat the sinew of the thigh (Gen. 32:32).

184.    He cannot eat blood (Lev. 7:26).

185.    He cannot eat a certain type of fat (Lev. 7:23).

186.    It is forbidden to cook meat together with milk (Ex. 23:19).

187.    It is forbidden to eat of such a mixture (Ex. 34:26).

188.    One cannot eat an ox condemned to stoning (Ex. 21:28).

189.    One may not eat bread made of new corn itself before the omer offering has been brought on the sixteenth of Nisan (Lev. 23:14).

190.    One may not eat of roasted corn until the omer has been offered (Lev. 23:14).

191.    One may not eat of green corn (Lev. 23:14).

192.    One may not eat orlah (Lev. 19:23).

193.    One may not eat the growth of mixed planting in the vineyard (Deut. 22:9).

194.    Any use of wine libations to idols is prohibited (Deut. 32:38).

195.    Gluttony and drunkenness is prohibited (Lev. 19:26; Deut. 21:20).

196.    It is forbidden to eat anything on the day of atonement (Lev. 23:29).

197.    One may not eat leaven (hamez) during the Passover (Ex. 13:3).

198.    One may not eat anything containing an admixture of such during the Passover (Ex. 13:20).

199.    One may not eat leaven the day before the Passover (Deut. 16:3).

200.    During the Passover no leaven may be seen in one’s possession (Ex. 13:7).

201.    During the Passover no leaven may be found in one’s possession (Ex. 12:19).


202.    A Nazarite may not drink wine or any beverage made from grapes (Num. 6:3).

203.    He may not eat fresh grapes (Num. 6:3).

204.    He may not eat dried grapes (Num. 6:3).

208.    He may not eat grape seeds (Num. 6:4). 206.    He may not eat grape peel (Num. 6:4).

207.    He may not render himself ritually impure for his dead (Num. 6:7).

208.    He may not enter a tent in which there is a corpse (Lev. 21:11).

209.    He must not shave his hair (Num. 6:5).


210.    One cannot reap the whole of a field without leaving the corners for the poor (Lev. 23:22).

211.    Do not gather up the ears of corn that fall during reaping or during harvest (Lev. 19:9).

212.    Do not gather the misformed clusters of grapes (Lev. 19:10).

213.    Do not gather the grapes that fall (Lev. 19:10).

214.    Do not return to take a forgotten sheaf (Deut. 24:19).

215.    Do not sow different species of seed together (Lev. 19:19).

216.    Do not sow corn in a vineyard (Deut. 22:9).

217.    Do not crossbreed different species of animals (Lev. 19:19).

218.    Do not work with two different species yoked together (Deut. 22:10).

219.    Do not muzzle an animal working in a field to prevent it from eating (Deut. 25:4).

220.    Do not till the earth in the seventh year (Lev. 25:4).

221.    Do not prune trees in the seventh year (Lev. 25:4).

222.    Do not reap (in the usual manner) produce in the seventh year (Lev. 25:5).

223.    Do not reap fruit in the seventh year (Lev. 25:5).

224.    Do not till the earth or prune trees in the jubilee year (Lev. 25:11).

225.    Do not harvest produce in the jubilee year (Lev. 25:11).

226.    Do not harvest fruit in the jubilee year (Lev. 25:11).

227.    One may not sell one’s landed inheritance in the land of Israel permanently (Lev. 25:23).

228.    One may not change the lands of the Levites (Lev. 25:33).

229.    One may not leave the Levites without support (Deut. 12:19).

Loans, Business, and the Treatment of Slaves

230.    One cannot demand repayment of a loan after the seventh year (Deut. 15:2).

231.    One may however refuse to lend to the poor because that year is approaching (Deut. 15:9).

232.    Do not deny charity to the poor (Deut. 15:7).

233.    Do not send a Hebrew slave away empty-handed when he finishes his period of service (Deut. 15:13).

234.    Do not dun a debtor when you know he cannot pay (Ex. 22:24).

235.    Do not lend to another Jew at interest (Lev. 25:37).

236.    Do not borrow from another Jew at interest (Deut. 23:20).

237.    Do not participate in an agreement involving interest either as a guarantor, witness, or writer of the contract (Ex. 22:24).

238.    Do not delay payment of wages (Lev. 19:13).

239.    Do not take a pledge from a debtor by violence (Deut. 24:10).

240.    Do not keep a poor man’s pledge when he needs it (Deut. 24:12).

241.    Do not take any pledge from a widow (Deut. 24:17).

242.    Do not take a pledge from any debtor if he earns his living with it (Deut. 24:6).

243.    Kidnaping a Jew is forbidden (Ex. 20:13).

244.    Do not steal (Lev. 19:11).

245.    Do not rob by violence (Lev. 19:13).

246.    Do not remove a landmark (Deut. 19:14).

247.    Do not defraud (Lev. 19:13).

248.    Do not deny receipt of a loan or a deposit (Lev. 19:11).

249.    Do not swear falsely regarding another man’s property (Lev. 19:11).

250.    Do not deceive anybody in business (Lev. 25:14).

251.    Do not mislead a man even verbally (Lev. 25:17).

252.    Do not harm a stranger verbally (Ex. 22:20).

253.    Do not do him injury in trade (Ex. 22:20).

254.    Do not return a runaway slave who has fled to the land of Israel to his master (Deut. 23:16).

255.    Do not take any advantage of such a slave (Deut. 23:17).

256.    Do not afflict the widow or the orphan (Ex. 22:21).

257.    Do not misuse a Hebrew slave (Lev. 25:39).

258.    Do not sell a Hebrew slave (Lev. 25:42).

259.    Do not treat him cruelly (Lev. 25:43).

260.    Do not allow a heathen to mistreat him (Lev. 25:53).

261.    Do not sell your Hebrew maidservant (Ex. 21:8).

262.    If you marry her, do not withhold food, clothing, and conjugal rights from her (Ex. 21:10).

263.    Do not sell a female captive (Deut. 21:14).

264.    Do not treat her as a slave (Deut. 21:14).

265.    Do not covet another man’s possessions (Ex. 20:17).

266.    Even the desire alone is forbidden (Deut. 8:18).

267.    A worker must not cut down standing corn during his work (Deut. 23:25).

268.    He must not take more fruit than he can eat (Deut. 23:25).

269.    One must not keep a lost article he has found (Deut. 22:3).

270.    One cannot refuse to help a man or an animal which is collapsing under its burden (Ex. 23:5).

271.    It is forbidden to defraud with weights and measures (Lev. 19:35).

272.    It is forbidden to possess inaccurate weights (Deut. 25:13).


273.    A judge must not perpetrate injustice (Lev. 19:15). 274.    He must not accept bribes (Ex. 23:8).

275.    He must not be partial (Lev. 19:15). 276.    He must not be afraid (Deut. 1:17).

277.    He may not favor the poor (Ex. 23:3; Lev. 19:15).

278.    He may not discriminate against the wicked (Ex. 23:6).

279.    He shall not pity the condemned (Deut. 19:13).

280.    He shall not pervert the judgment of strangers or orphans (Deut. 24:17).

281.    It is forbidden to hear one litigant without the other being present (Ex. 23:1).

282.    A capital case cannot be decided by a majority of one (Ex. 23:2).

283.    A judge should not accept another judge’s opinion unless he is convinced of its correctness (Ex. 23:2).

284.    One ignorant of the law cannot be appointed as a judge (Deut. 1:17).

285.    Do not give false testimony (Ex. 20:16).

286.    Do not accept testimony from a wicked person (Ex. 23:1).

287.    Do not accept testimony from relatives of a person involved in the case (Deut. 24:16).

288.    Do not pronounce judgment on the basis of the testimony of one witness (Deut. 19:15).

289.    Do not murder (Ex. 20:13).

290.    Do not convict on circumstantial evidence alone (Ex. 23:7).

291.    A witness must not sit as a judge in capital cases (Num. 35:30).

292.    Do not execute anybody without proper trial and conviction (Num. 35:12).

293.    Do not pity or spare the pursuer (Deut. 25:12).

294.    Punishment is not to be inflicted for an act committed under duress (Deut. 22:26).

295.    Do not accept ransom for a murderer (Num. 35:31).

296.    Do not accept ransom for a manslayer (Num. 35:32).

297.    Do not hesitate to save another person from danger (Lev. 19:16).

298.    Do not leave a stumblingblock in the way (Deut. 22:8).

299.    Do not mislead another person by giving wrong advice (Lev. 19:14).

300.    Do not tell tales (Lev. 19:16).

301.    It is forbidden to administer more than the assigned number of lashes to the guilty (Deut. 25:2, 3)

302.    Do not bear hatred in your heart (Lev. 19:17).

303.    Do not shame a Jew (Lev. 19:17).

304.    Do not bear a grudge (Lev. 19:18).

305.    Do not take revenge (Lev. 19:18).

306.    Do not take the dam when you take the young birds (Deut. 22:6).

307.    Do not shave a leprous scall (Lev. 13:33).

308.    Do not remove other signs of that affliction (Deut. 24:8).

309.    Do not cultivate a valley in which a slain body was found (Deut. 21:4).

310.    Do not suffer a witch to live (Ex. 22:17).

311.    Do not force a bridegroom to perform military service during the first year of his marriage (Deut. 24:5).

312.    Do not rebel against the transmitters of the tradition of the law (Deut. 17:11).

313.    Do not add to the precepts of the law (Deut. 13:1).

314.    Do not subtract from the precepts of the law (Deut. 13:1).

315.    Do not curse a judge (Ex. 22:27).

316.    Do not curse a ruler (Ex. 22:27).

317.    Do not curse any Jew (Lev. 19:14).

318.    Do not curse a parent (Ex. 21:17).

319.    Do not strike a parent (Ex. 21:15).

320.    Do not work on the Sabbath (Ex. 20:10).

321.    Do not walk further than the permitted limits (Ex. 16:29).

322.    Do not inflict punishment on the Sabbath (Ex. 35:3).

323.    Do not work on the first day of the Passover (Ex. 12:16).

324.    Do not work on the seventh day of the Passover (Ex. 12:16).

325.    Do not work on the Shavuot (Lev. 23:21).

326.    Do not work on Rosh Ha-Shanah (Lev. 23:25).

327.    Do not work on the first day of Sukkot (Lev. 23:35).

328.    Do not work on the eighth day of Sukkot (Lev. 23:36).

329.    Do not work on the day of atonement (Lev. 23:28).

Incest and Other Forbidden Relationships

330.    It is forbidden to have sexual relations with one’s mother (Lev. 18:7).

331.    This is true also with one’s step-mother (Lev. 18:8).

332.    This is true with one’s sister (Lev. 18:9).

333.    This is true with one’s step-sister (Lev. 18:11).

334.    This is true with a daughter-in-law (Lev. 18:10).

335.    This is true with a granddaughter (Lev. 18:10).

336.    This is true with a daughter (Lev. 18:10).

337.    This is also forbidden between mother and daughter (Lev. 18:17).

338.    It is forbidden between a mother and her daughter-in-law (Lev. 18:17).

339.    It is forbidden between a grandmother and her granddaughter (Lev. 18:17).

340.    It is forbidden between nephew and aunt (Lev. 18:12).

341.    It is forbidden between niece and aunt (Lev. 18:13).

342.    It is forbidden with one’s paternal uncle’s wife (Lev. 18:14).

343.    It is forbidden with one’s daughter-in-law (Lev. 18:15).

344.    It is forbidden with one’s brother’s wife (Lev. 18:16).

345.    It is forbidden with one’s wife’s sister (Lev. 18:18).

346.    It is forbidden to have sexual relations with a menstruous woman (Lev. 18:19).

347.    Do not commit adultery (Lev. 18:20).

348.    A man shall not have sexual relations with an animal (Lev. 18:23).

349.    A woman shall not have sexual relations with an animal (Lev. 18:23).

350.    Homosexuality is forbidden (Lev. 18:22).

351.    Homosexuality is forbidden with one’s father (Lev. 18:7).

352.    Homosexuality is forbidden with one’s uncle (Lev. 15:14).

353.    It is forbidden to have any intimate physical contact with anyone except one’s own wife (Lev. 18:6).

354.    A mamzer may not marry a Jewess (Deut. 23:3).

355.    Harlotry is forbidden (Deut. 23:18). 356.    A divorcée may not be remarried to her first husband if, in the meanwhile, she has married another (Deut. 24:4).

357.    A childless widow may not marry anybody other than her late husband’s brother (Deut. 25:5).

358.    A man may not divorce a wife whom he married after having raped her (Deut. 22:29).

359.    This is also true if he has slandered her (Deut. 22:19).

360.    An eunuch may not marry a Jewess (Deut. 23:2).

361.    Castration is forbidden (Lev. 22:24).

The Monarchy

362.    An elected king must be of the seed of Israel (Deut. 17:15).

363.    He must not accumulate an excess number of horses (Deut. 17:16).

364.    He must not multiply unto himself many wives (Deut. 17:17).

365.    He must not multiply unto himself much wealth (Deut. 17:17).

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