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Category Archives: illness

In The News 23

Just an overview of different news stories

#1. http://www.christianpost.com/news/massacre-in-las-vegas-our-father-is-grieving-with-us-201305/

One last word: When the shooting occurred, Las Vegas Mayor Carolyn Goodman tweeted, “Pray for Las Vegas.” Please do so, right now.

Yes when tragedy takes place then they want God. But when times re good they have no time for him and even deny he exists. There is sense to this event and the Bible tells us that we struggle not against flesh and blood but  with principalities etc., from the spiritual world. Let’s keep things in perspective as you pray for Las Vegas. Suffering and evil are going to continue until God calls time but before he does that, he still wants more people saved. Conduct the battle for souls under the right context and remember that our fellow humans are ot the real enemy.

#2. http://www.christianpost.com/news/4-christian-reactions-to-hugh-hefners-death-the-mansion-is-a-myth-200906/

Here are the thoughts of some of the leading Christian leaders and writers about Hefner’s life and what he left behind.

It would have been nice if they completed the article and included those 4 thoughts. Hefner was nothing but a dirty old man. He was not a hero just a person who led many to sin and destruction.

#3. http://www.christianpost.com/news/returning-to-pastor-led-prayer-in-public-worship-services-200910/

Prayer led by the pastor of the church used to be a normal part of worship services. What was deemed in the past as a part of public worship, has now been minimized, eliminated, or delegated. This is not acceptable or good for the church.

We agree with his thinking. Pastors need to return to being the spiritual leader of the church and not be seen as some business executive who knows how to delegate. True pastoral leadership goes a long ways in keeping a church spiritually healthy.

#4. http://www.christianpost.com/news/tennessee-church-shooter-motivated-by-revenge-for-dylann-roofs-massacre-at-black-church-201332/

Emanuel Kidega Samson, 25, the ex-member of Burnette Chapel Church of Christ in Antioch, Tennessee, who shot eight people including one fatally at his old church, was motivated by revenge for the nine churchgoers who were killed by Dylann Roof in 2015.

How is it revenge when you attack innocent people who had no connection to Roof?

#5. http://www.christianpost.com/news/tearful-hope-carpenter-begs-for-forgiveness-from-multiracial-megachurch-says-shes-ignorant-about-discrimination-201325/

A tearful Hope Carpenter, who co-founded the 21,000-member Redemption Church in Greenville, South Carolina, with her husband Ron Carpenter Jr., apologized to their multiracial congregation Sunday for slamming NFL players protesting social injustice during the national anthem as wrong.

In these days it doesn’t matter what you say, someone will always be offended or upset. If you followed scripture when you framed your remarks then don’t apologize unless you are truly in error. Everyone is allowed an opinion even when it disagrees with black people. Speak the truth in love and always stick to the truth. Those who are offended may need to learn a lesson themselves.

#6. http://www.christianpost.com/news/chinese-scientists-create-human-life-for-dna-experiments-christian-bioethicist-disturbed-201026/

A Christian bioethics lecturer has spoken out against new DNA surgery carried out by Chinese scientists who are reportedly creating lab-grown human embryos in order to test disease-removing techniques.

“What concerns me and actually quite a number of bio-ethicists and those who are looking and researching in this field is that what we here have is scientists who are deliberately creating human life, deliberately creating embryos. These are not embryos that have been left over as spares from fertility treatments from IVF,” Dr. Trevor Stammers, Bioethics lecturer at St. Mary’s University in Twickenham, told Premier.

“They’ve been specifically created to be experimented upon and then destroyed, which is why there are no children who were cured that the Chinese are bringing out. It’s just a proof of principle and it’s been gained in a way that many people would regard as being unethical.”

Are those embryos actual human life? That is the question that must be answered first.

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Exactly What Is Accreditation and How is it Different from Certification? by Dr. Dennis Frey

Accreditation is essentially a statement of approval.  In the United States, if it is to be meaningful, it must come from an independent association having attained its own approval from the United States Department of Education (USDE).  In the U.S., the government (USDE) does not accredit schools.  However, the USDE is in the business of approving the associations which do accredit schools (for the purpose of serving as gate keepers for Title IV Funding).  You must understand this if you are to properly understand accreditation. Title IV Funding is the nearly 60 billion dollar congressionally approved annual money stream that flows from taxpayers to educational institutions that are accredited by an agency approved by USDE.  The reason that USDE approves accrediting agencies is to assure quality control over the flow of Title IV Funds.  The greater part of accreditation requirements is geared toward satisfying the USDE mandated standards that are specifically designed to safeguard the huge taxpayer investment in higher education.

Accrediting associations in the U.S. are not required to seek USDE recognition, but without it, the value of such accreditation may be questionable, and schools they accredit are not eligible to receive Title IV Funds.  That is why schools promoting accreditation from sources not approved by the USDE are considered “unaccredited.”  BEWARE: There are dozens of so-called accrediting agencies (some with very official sounding names), that are nothing more than a fraud designed to deceive.

EXCEPTION: Accrediting agencies (just like schools), must first operate according to accepted practices and attract a sufficient number of clients before they can petition the USDE for possible acceptance.  Unrecognized agencies that are in a petitioning status with USDE, and are operating openly within the general parameters set forth by USDE (though still not considered recognized), ought to be considered valid, but their members’ schools are still not qualified for Title IV Funds.

The following quote is taken from the web site of the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA).  “There are accrediting organizations that may not be recognized but are not accreditation mills. For example, the accreditor may be seeking recognition, but the process is not complete. Or the accreditor does not meet the requirements of CHEA or USDE for reasons that do not relate to quality.”

Certification is also essentially a statement of approval, but significantly different from accreditation in several important ways.  Most importantly, certification is not tied to Title IV Funding.  Only USDE recognized accreditation qualifies institutions to receive such funding.  Certification is not generally recognized as being equivalent to accreditation since certification criteria is not geared toward satisfying the requirements for Title IV Funding.  Therefore, certifying agencies are not as well known, and their value not as readily appreciated.

Legitimate certification is similar to legitimate accreditation in that it also involves voluntary peer review through private agencies accountable to their constituents and the public at large, but not to the federal government since Title IV Funding is not involved.  Much of the misunderstanding that arises between the two is due to the lack of consumer awareness, and the generally held belief that accreditation is the only standard for academic legitimacy.  This is one reason why accreditation mills thrive while certification mills generally are not popular targets for scam artists.

Furthermore, certification is a term more often associated with professions, products, and processes.  For example, there are “Certified Financial Planners”, “USDA Certified Agricultural Products”, and “Procedures Certified” by certain medical associations.  Of course, the term “accredited” is also used in many of these situations.  This is because the two terms often serve as synonyms.  However, when it comes to higher education, accreditation is tied to Title IV Funding and certification is not.  Schools may be accredited but not certified, certified and not accredited or both or neither.  The important thing is that the school not misrepresent itself.

Exactly What is an Accredited Degree?

This may come as a shock, but in point-of-fact, there is no such thing as an accredited degree.  Only schools or programs within schools are accredited.  Period!  Look carefully at any degree earned from an accredited school, and you will not find one word that even suggests that it is an “accredited” degree.

If it does, you may be certain that the degree is bogus.  That’s because degrees are not accredited.  You can earn a degree from an accredited school or program within a school, but you cannot earn an accredited degree from that same school.  It may seem like only a matter of semantics, but it much more.  You can earn a degree from either an accredited or unaccredited school, but the degree you earn is neither accredited nor unaccredited.

Here is an example (admittedly extreme, but it makes the point):  Sam Smith graduated from MYU before it was accredited.  His degree is from an unaccredited school.  Sam’s son (Sam Jr.) graduated from MYU after it received accreditation.  Sam Jr. earned a degree from an accredited school.  Sam’s grandson graduated from MYU during the time that it lost its accreditation.  Sam III earned a degree from an unaccredited school.

Sam’s great grandson earned his degree from MYU after it regained its accreditation.  Sam IV earned a degree from an accredited school.  Now let’s look back, the fact that MYU was accredited when Sam Jr. attended, was of no consequence to Sam.  His degree was still earned at an unaccredited school.

Why?  Because there is no such thing as “grandfathering” when it comes to accreditation.  The same is true for Sam Jr. at the time MYU lost its accreditation.  Sam Jr. still earned a degree from an accredited school.  Why?  Because even though a school may lose its accreditation (it happens), there is no reverse of grandfathering.  The school will always be considered accredited at the time that it held accreditation, and unaccredited at the time it did not hold accreditation.  The bottom line, there is no such thing as an accredited degree.  One either earns a degree from an accredited or unaccredited school.  All accredited schools in the U.S. were at one time, unaccredited, and all accredited schools are subject to the loss of accreditation (it does happen).

Are Schools Required to Obtain Recognized Accreditation?

No.  For the most part, accreditation in the U.S. is strictly voluntary.  Many states require, or provide for, a kind of “state approval.”  However, this is not the same as accreditation.  There are many schools in the U.S. that operate as top-quality institutions with high academic standards and yet have elected to not seek accreditation.

The following quote is taken from the web site of the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA).  There are institutions that may not be accredited but are not degree mills. For example, the institution may be seeking accreditation, but the process is not complete. Or a legitimate institution may choose not to be accredited for reasons that do not relate to quality.

The following quote from the United States Department of Education makes the point. “It should be noted that some institutions have chosen not to participate in the federal student aid program and therefore do not have to be approved by an accrediting agency recognized by the Department. While these institutions do not appear on the Department’s list, they may be legitimate schools. Stroup encouraged consumers and employers to use the list as an initial source of information and to investigate further whenever an institution does not appear on the list.”  (February 1, 2005)

The former executive director of the Association for Biblical Higher Education (an accrediting agency recognized by the United States Department of Education), as quoted in that agency’s September 2005 quarterly publication stated that “There are hundreds of Bible Colleges and Seminaries in the United States and Canada that are offering good solid theological training, yet they are not accredited.  This would be the case with our Affiliate institutions that take advantage of the programs and services that we offer.”

Of course, all schools in the U.S. attempting to seek recognized accreditation must first operate as an unaccredited school and provide sufficient proof of institutional credibility prior to applying.  All accredited schools in the U.S. were, at one time, unaccredited.  In fact, the common qualifying procedure for schools seeking recognized accreditation is the development of a “Self Study” through which the institution demonstrates, to the satisfaction of the accrediting agency, that it is operating in a manner sufficiently consistent with the criteria required for accreditation. On a practical level, this demonstrates that it is possible for an unaccredited school to operate at a level generally equivalent to that of an accredited school.  The very same logic can be applied to certification as well.

What Are Some Advantages of Recognized Accreditation?

Access to government sponsored or approved student loans and grants (Title IV Funds).

Easier recognition for transfer of its credits to other accredited schools.

Easier recognition of its degrees by other schools and organizations.

Greater likelihood of acceptance of its students by other schools for further study.

Greater probability of the recognition of its educational programs meeting the qualifications for some goals, requirements, and licenses.

What Are Some Disadvantages of Recognized Accreditation?

More difficult entrance requirements into its programs of study.

Program requirements which may limit certain individuals or prevent them from being accepted into its programs.

Significantly higher tuition and related costs for all programs of study.

Less accommodating schedules and course offerings.

Fewer options for the older or nontraditional student.

What Are Some Advantages of Not Having Recognized Accreditation?

Less difficult entrance requirements for desirable programs of study.

Lower tuition and related costs making it possible to graduate without debt.

More accommodating program schedules and course offerings making it possible for busy adults to study anywhere anytime.

Unaccredited schools are likely to be more innovative and liberal in the development of specialized courses, unique study concepts, the use of emerging technology, and the design of nontraditional certificate and degree programs.  In this regard they are often pioneers and early adopters.

Providing the school is properly dedicated to its mission, the student will have an opportunity to gain an education comparable to that offered at accredited schools for similar courses and programs, but at a fraction of the total cost.

What Are Some Disadvantages of Not Having Recognized Accreditation?

No access to government sponsored or approved student loans and grants (Title IV Funds).

Transfer of credits earned may be more difficult.

Acceptance of graduates by accredited schools for further study more difficult.

The recognition of educational qualifications earned for meeting some goals may be problematic.

Certain licenses and professional requirements may not permit the acceptance of degrees earned from unaccredited schools.

Does Recognized Accreditation Assure A Quality Education?

No.  Even though recognized accreditation is a very good indicator that a program meets acceptable standards, the quality of an education is still largely dependent upon the value of the course content, the background and competency of the instructor, and the willingness of the student to get the most out of the course.  It is quite possible to attend even a top-rated accredited school and obtain an inferior education.  No level of accreditation can force a professor to do her or his best, and no professor, however gifted and dedicated, can force a student to learn.  It’s always possible for a less than sincere person to beat the system.

Can A Program Without Recognized Accreditation Provide A Quality Education?

Yes!  Again, since the quality of an education is largely dependent upon the value of the course content, the background and competency of the instructor, and the willingness of the student to get the most out of the course, it is quite possible to attend a well organized unaccredited school and receive a first-class education.  In fact, there is no reason why the level of learning between an accredited and unaccredited program offering similar courses and programs should not be comparable.  The honest student truly seeking to learn, will quickly discover whether the program is meeting the need.  If the course of study is meeting the need, and the student is doing her or his best, whether the school is accredited or not may be immaterial.
Beware of those who suggest that there is “no reason to attend an unaccredited school.”  Such logic suggests that there is no need for new schools, or for the older and established schools to become accredited.  How so?  In order to become an accredited school, an unaccredited school must first demonstrate through a pattern of evidence [to the satisfaction of the accrediting agency], that it is operating in a manner sufficiently consistent with the criteria required for accreditation.  In other words, in order for any school to become accredited, there must be a sufficient period of time during which the school is unaccredited but operating as if it were accredited, before it can be accredited.  This cannot be done unless the school is enrolling and graduating students!  Furthermore, without the pressure from innovative and immerging institutions, competition would be stifled, resulting in fewer choices and even higher tuition.

Will a Degree Earned Through an Unaccredited School be Accepted and Considered Legitimate?

This depends upon what is meant by accepted and legitimate.  Here is the blunt truth.  There is a difference between a legitimate degree and a degree earned legitimately!  Depending on the law of any given state or country, even a cheap degree may be legally legitimate.  But was it legitimately earned?  A degree is legitimately earned providing the entrance requirements, course work, and completion requirements are appropriate for the degree awarded (whether it is earned through an accredited or unaccredited institution).

Will a Degree from an Unaccredited School be Accepted by My Church or Place of Employment?

While there certainly are some situations when only a degree from an accredited school can qualify one for certain positions and privileges, for the most part, you are judged and accepted on you, not the school from which you graduated.  Example: Are you already in ministry?  If so, when was the last time a member of your church asked you if you had a degree at all, much less if it was earned at an accredited college or seminary?

CAUTION!  Do not fall victim to the myth that earning a degree from an accredited school is a ticket to ministry success.  It is not.  Ministry is one of those places where what you do with what you know trumps everything else.  In fact, for those already serving in ministry, a degree from a highly credible though unaccredited school may be the most logical choice.  We ought never to forget that especially in the Christian tradition, academic freedom is considered a cornerstone of religious liberty.  Of course, so is academic responsibility!  Therefore, any program of study leading to a theological degree ought to be both Biblically sound, and academically honest.

However, if you are concerned whether your church or place of employment will accept you with a degree earned through a credible though unaccredited school, you are strongly urged to ask!  Even in the case of degrees earned from accredited schools, there may be restrictions on what kind of degree is recognized, and what kinds of schools are considered acceptable.  For example, in some cases, denominations and ministries may not accept degrees from secular schools, or schools not affiliated with the group.

Will a Degree or Credits Earned Through an Unaccredited School be Accepted  by Other Schools?

First of all, it should be understood that no school is required to accept credits ore degrees from another school (accredited or unaccredited).  However, generally speaking, degrees earned through unaccredited schools will often be recognized by other unaccredited schools providing the school meets the standards of the receiving school, and the learning discipline is relevant.  On the other hand, most accredited schools will accept only a very limited number of students from unaccredited schools.  Such acceptance, when granted, is usually based on degree or credit relevancy, the coursework and degree requirements, and the background and ability of the person applying.  The bottom line…an accredited school may accept credits and degrees from an unaccredited school, but don’t count on it!  If this is a real issue for you, ask first!

However, in the case of Master’s, because of our commitment to educational excellence, credits and degrees earned a MISD have been accepted at many regularly accredited institutions.  In addition, MISD has formal agreements with several faith-based institutions of higher learning regarding the acceptance of credits and degrees, and friendly relations with more than ninety others.  Names of these institutions are available upon request.

Why is Master’s Certified, but not Accredited?

Master’s is a relatively young institution (founded March 30, 1999), and is not financially endowed as in the case of institutions associated with denominations .  The process of seeking and obtaining legitimate accreditation is one that requires considerable institutional resources, and a sufficient number of years of successful operation in order to be adequately prepared.

Since our founding in 1999, we have pursued a policy of developing a Divinity School that operates in a manner consistent with Biblical guidelines, and have promoted and maintained appropriate academic and business standards.  Consequently, we have received a remarkable level of credibility among our ministry peers.

This affirmation of institutional integrity has attracted thousands of students from around the world.  Our alumni serve in practically every ministry calling within the denominational and independent structures of the church-at-large.  A careful examination of our Endorsements and Cooperatives bears witness to this fact.  Our goal is to remain faithful to our mission and purpose, to continue to promote appropriate academic standards, and to be vigilant in our pursuit of institutional development.

Nevertheless, we do recognize and honor the value of legitimate academic and institutional peer review.  For this reason, Master’s has achieved certification with the Council of Private Colleges of America. The mission of the CPCA is to serve private faith based educational institutions through quality standards and practices.  The purpose of the CPCA is to promote quality faith based education, and provide support services for faith based educational institutions to accomplish their individual purpose and mission.  The CPCA represents member faith based educational institutions before government or other educational agencies, and provides certification to member faith based educational institutions through quality peer review and onsite certification visits verifying CPCA standards.

In addition, understanding the value of USDE recognized accrediting agencies, Master’s has achieved affiliated status with the Association for Biblical Higher Education (a USDE recognized agency).   As such, we participates in and contribute to collegial and professional development activities of the Association.  Our affiliate status does not, however, constitute, imply or presume ABHE accredited status at present or in the future.

Does Master’s Have A Plan to Seek Recognized Accreditation?

First, let’s make something quite clear…one of the “tricks” of unscrupulous schools is to falsely hold out the promise of accreditation sometime in the near future.  No unaccredited school can promise students that it is going to be accredited (and no accredited school can promise that it will always remain accredited).  Even though Master’s is currently engaged in the process of  preparing for recognized accreditation, if we are successful, that will have no bearing on degrees earned prior to accreditation (see above).  Furthermore, the process by which recognized accreditation is achieved can take years.  If you are seriously considering Master’s, and do not need to earn a degree from an already accredited institution, then your decision should be based upon our currently achieved level of credibility.

OK, but How Can I be Sure That Master’s International School of Divinity is Really Valid and of High Quality?

Check us out for yourself. DO NOT rely on published guide books, Internet message boards, blogs or chat rooms for accurate information (this holds true for any other school you may be considering). Such places as message boards and blogs are often populated by one or more “self-proclaimed experts” whom only rarely possess any actual first-hand knowledge about the schools they suppose themselves to be competent to rate (or rant against).  These individuals seem to crave whatever attention they may get from their pontifications.

In addition, the few books and online guides that profess to give “expert” guidance, are too often out-of-date or just plain wrong, simply because it is physically impossible for these individuals to actually visit the schools they profess to know about.  Consequently, information is notoriously inaccurate, out-of-date and suffers from the fact the few if any of the schools rated have received an actual on-site visit or even been afforded the benefit of submitting a formal validation document.  Information is usually gleaned from the internet, school catalogs as well as second and third-hand sources.  One serious indication of poor research is the use of unprofessional language and the strongly worded personal opinions of the author or compiler.  While such sources may provide some useful information, caution should be exercised when accepting information as accurate.

Furthermore, be aware that some unscrupulous admissions recruiters often profess to have “inside knowledge” in order to berate competing schools as a way of convincing you to enroll at the school they represent.  The only sure way is to check it out for yourself.  In the case of Master’s, read everything on our web site, call and speak with anyone or any organization named on the web site that is of interest to you. Request an academic evaluation for yourself, and ask every question that you think is important.  Don’t settle for anything less than a satisfactory answer. After that, you will be able to make an informed decision.

IMPORTANT:  Please visit us in person if that is possible.  These days, legitimate schools are trying very hard to present themselves as best they can by having a first-rate web site (such as Master’s is trying to do).  However, easy degree mills and outright degree mills are also doing so.  That’s why a visit can be worth a thousand pictures!  Of course, you may not be able to visit, but perhaps you have a friend or a colleague from your church or business contacts who may be able to come on your behalf, if so, we would be pleased to meet with them in your place.  If none of these options are practical, you may wish to contact the Council of Private Colleges of America.  The on-site team that recommended our five-year certification will be able to answer any questions concerning the quality of Master’s.

Ten Commandments for  Degree Mills

1.  Thou shalt seduce them with ridiculously low tuition.

2.  Thou shalt boast of being accredited by a worthless agency.

3.  Thou shalt offer as many different degree titles as possible.

4.  Thou shalt give life-experience credit for everything.

5.  Thou shalt not require too much work for anything.

6.  Thou shalt not refuse anyone entrance into any program.

7.  Impress them with your “accredited” faculty, they won’t know that there is no such thing.

8.  Always appeal to their vanity by offering them what they “deserve.”

9.  Provide high quality printed degrees and transcripts to deflect questions about the  low quality of the program.

10. Encourage skeptics to visit your web site, discourage them from visiting your office.

 
Comments Off on Exactly What Is Accreditation and How is it Different from Certification? by Dr. Dennis Frey

Posted by on July 18, 2017 in academics, archaeology, astronomy, Bible, church, comparative religions, creation, education, faith, Genetics, history, illness, Justice, leadership, politics, science

 

Interesting Biblical Facts

50 of 101 scientific facts 

1. – The earth free-floats in space (Job 26:7), affected only by gravity. While other sources declared the earth sat on the back of an elephant or turtle, or was held up by Atlas, the Bible alone states what we now know to be true – “He hangs the earth on nothing.”

2. – Creation is made of particles, indiscernible to our eyes (Hebrews 11:3). Not until the 19th century was it discovered that all visible matter consists of invisible elements.

3. – The Bible specifies the perfect dimensions for a stable water vessel (Genesis 6:15). Ship builders today are well aware that the ideal dimension for ship stability is a length six times that of the width. Keep in mind, God told Noah the ideal dimensions for the ark 4,500 years ago.

4. – When dealing with disease, clothes and body should be washed under running water (Leviticus 15:13). For centuries people naively washed in standing water. Today we recognize the need to wash away germs with fresh water.

5. – Sanitation industry birthed (Deuteronomy 23:12-13). Some 3,500 years ago God commanded His people to have a place outside the camp where they could relieve themselves. They were to each carry a shovel so that they could dig a hole (latrine) and cover their waste. Up until World War I, more soldiers died from disease than war because they did not isolate human waste.

6. – Oceans contain springs (Job 38:16). The ocean is very deep. Almost all the ocean floor is in total darkness and the pressure there is enormous. It would have been impossible for Job to have explored the “springs of the sea.” Until recently, it was thought that oceans were fed only by rivers and rain. Yet in the 1970s, with the help of deep diving research submarines that were constructed to withstand 6,000 pounds-per-square-inch pressure, oceanographers discovered springs on the ocean floors!

7. – There are mountains on the bottom of the ocean floor (Jonah 2:5-6). Only in the last century have we discovered that there are towering mountains and deep trenches in the depths of the sea.

8. – Joy and gladness understood (Acts 14:17). Evolution cannot explain emotions. Matter and energy do not feel. Scripture explains that God places gladness in our hearts (Psalm 4:7), and ultimate joy is found only in our Creator’s presence – “in Your presence is fullness of joy” (Psalm 16:11).

9. – Blood is the source of life and health (Leviticus 17:1114). Up until 120 years ago, sick people were “bled” and many died as a result (e.g. George Washington). Today we know that healthy blood is necessary to bring life-giving nutrients to every cell in the body. God declared that “the life of the flesh is in the blood” long before science understood its function.

10. – The Bible states that God created life according to kinds (Genesis 1:24). The fact that God distinguishes kinds, agrees with what scientists observe – namely that there are horizontal genetic boundaries beyond which life cannot vary. Life produces after its own kind. Dogs produce dogs, cats produce cats, roses produce roses. Never have we witnessed one kind changing into another kind as evolution supposes. There are truly natural limits to biological change.

11. – Noble behavior understood (John 15:13Romans 5:7-8). The Bible and history reveal that countless people have endangered or even sacrificed their lives for another. This reality is completely at odds with Darwin’s theory of the survival of the fittest.

12. – Chicken or egg dilemma solved (Genesis 1:20-22). Which came first, the chicken or the egg? This question has plagued philosophers for centuries. The Bible states that God created birds with the ability to reproduce after their kind. Therefore the chicken was created first with the ability to make eggs! Yet, evolution has no solution for this dilemma.

13. – Which came first, proteins or DNA (Revelation 4:11)? For evolutionists, the chicken or egg dilemma goes even deeper. Chickens consist of proteins. The code for each protein is contained in the DNA/RNA system. However, proteins are required in order to manufacture DNA. So which came first: proteins or DNA? The ONLY explanation is that they were created together.

14. – Our bodies are made from the dust of the ground (Genesis 2:73:19). Scientists have discovered that the human body is comprised of some 28 base and trace elements – all of which are found in the earth.

15. – The First Law of Thermodynamics established (Genesis 2:1-2). The First Law states that the total quantity of energy and matter in the universe is a constant. One form of energy or matter may be converted into another, but the total quantity always remains the same. Therefore the creation is finished, exactly as God said way back in Genesis.

16. – The first three verses of Genesis accurately express all known aspects of the creation (Genesis 1:1-3). Science expresses the universe in terms of: time, space, matter, and energy. In Genesis chapter one we read: “In the beginning (time) God created the heavens (space) and the earth (matter)…Then God said, “Let there be light (energy).” No other creation account agrees with the observable evidence.

17. – The universe had a beginning (Genesis 1:1Hebrews 1:10-12). Starting with the studies of Albert Einstein in the early 1900s and continuing today, science has confirmed the biblical view that the universe had a beginning. When the Bible was written most people believed the universe was eternal. Science has proven them wrong, but the Bible correct.

18. – The earth is a sphere (Isaiah 40:22). At a time when many thought the earth was flat, the Bible told us that the earth is spherical.

19. – Scripture assumes a revolving (spherical) earth (Luke 17:34-36). Jesus said that at His return some would be asleep at night while others would be working at day time activities in the field. This is a clear indication of a revolving earth, with day and night occurring simultaneously.

20. – Origin of the rainbow explained (Genesis 9:13-16). Prior to the Flood there was a different environment on the earth (Genesis 2:5-6). After the Flood, God set His rainbow “in the cloud” as a sign that He would never again judge the earth by water. Meteorologists now understand that a rainbow is formed when the sun shines through water droplets – which act as a prism – separating white light into its color spectrum.

21. – Light can be divided (Job 38:24). Sir Isaac Newton studied light and discovered that white light is made of seven colors, which can be “parted” and then recombined. Science confirmed this four centuries ago – God declared this four millennia ago!

22. – Ocean currents anticipated (Psalm 8:8). Three thousand years ago the Bible described the “paths of the seas.” In the 19th century Matthew Maury – the father of oceanography – after reading Psalm 8, researched and discovered ocean currents that follow specific paths through the seas! Utilizing Maury’s data, marine navigators have since reduced by many days the time required to traverse the seas.

23. – Sexual promiscuity is dangerous to your health (1 Corinthians 6:18Romans 1:27). The Bible warns that “he who commits sexual immorality sins against his own body,” and that those who commit homosexual sin would “receive in themselves” the penalty of their error. Much data now confirms that any sexual relationship outside of holy matrimony is unsafe.

24. – Reproduction explained (Genesis 1:27-282:24Mark 10:6-8). While evolution has no mechanism to explain how male and female reproductive organs evolved at the same time, the Bible says that from the beginning God made them male and female in order to propagate the human race and animal kinds.

25. – Incalculable number of stars (Jeremiah 33:22). At a time when less than 5,000 stars were visible to the human eye, God stated that the stars of heaven were innumerable. Not until the 17th century did Galileo glimpse the immensity of our universe with his new telescope. Today, astronomers estimate that there are ten thousand billion trillion stars – that’s a 1 followed by 25 zeros! Yet, as the Bible states, scientists admit this number may be woefully inadequate.

26. – The number of stars, though vast, are finite (Isaiah 40:26). Although man is unable to calculate the exact number of stars, we now know their number is finite. Of course God knew this all along – “He counts the number of the stars; He calls them all by name” (Psalm 147:4). What an awesome God!

27. – The Bible compares the number of stars with the number of grains of sand on the seashore (Genesis 22:17Hebrews 11:12). Amazingly, gross estimates of the number of sand grains are comparable to the estimated number of stars in the universe.

28. – Rejecting the Creator results in moral depravity (Romans 1:20-32). The Bible warns that when mankind rejects the overwhelming evidence for a Creator, lawlessness will result. Since the theory of evolution has swept the globe, abortion, pornography, genocide, etc., have all risen sharply.

29. – The fact that God once flooded the earth (the Noahic Flood) would be denied (2 Peter 3:5-6). There is a mass of fossil evidence to prove this fact, yet it is flatly ignored by most of the scientific world because it was God’s judgment on man’s wickedness.

30. – Vast fossil deposits anticipated (Genesis 7). When plants and animals die they decompose rapidly. Yet billions of life forms around the globe have been preserved as fossils. Geologists now know that fossils only form if there is rapid deposition of life buried away from scavengers and bacteria. This agrees exactly with what the Bible says occurred during the global Flood.

31. – The continents were created as one large land mass (Genesis 1:9-10). Many geologists agree there is strong evidence that the earth was originally one super continent – just as the Bible said way back in Genesis.

32. – Continental drift inferred (Genesis 7:11). Today the study of the ocean floor indicates that the landmasses have been ripped apart. Scripture states that during the global Flood the “fountains of the great deep were broken up.” This cataclysmic event apparently resulted in the continental plates breaking and shifting.

33. – Ice Age inferred (Job 38:29-30). Prior to the global Flood the earth was apparently subtropical. However shortly after the Flood, the Bible mentions ice often – “By the breath of God ice is given, and the broad waters are frozen” (Job 37:10). Evidently the Ice Age occurred in the centuries following the Flood.

34. – Life begins at fertilization (Jeremiah 1:5). God declares that He knew us before we were born. The biblical penalty for murdering an unborn child was death (Exodus 21:22-23). Today, it is an irrefutable biological fact that the fertilized egg is truly an entire human being. Nothing will be added to the first cell except nutrition and oxygen.

35. – God fashions and knits us together in the womb (Job 10:8-1231:15). Science was ignorant concerning embryonic development until recently. Yet many centuries ago, the Bible accurately described God making us an “intricate unity” in the womb.

36. – DNA anticipated (Psalm 139:13-16). During the 1950s, Watson and Crick discovered the genetic blueprint for life. Three thousand years ago the Bible seems to reference this written digital code in Psalm 139 – “Thine eyes did see my substance, yet being unperfect [unformed]; and in Thy book all my members were written, which in continuance were fashioned, when as yet there was none of them.”

37. – God has created all mankind from one blood (Acts 17:26; Genesis 5). Today researchers have discovered that we have all descended from one gene pool. For example, a 1995 study of a section of Y chromosomes from 38 men from different ethnic groups around the world was consistent with the biblical teaching that we all come from one man (Adam)

38. – Origin of the major language groups explained (Genesis 11). After the rebellion at Babel, God scattered the people by confounding the one language into many languages. Evolution teaches that we all evolved from a common ancestor, yet offers no mechanism to explain the origin of the thousands of diverse languages in existence today.

39. – Origin of the different “races” explained (Genesis 11). As Noah’s descendants migrated around the world after Babel, each language group developed distinct features based on environment and genetic variation. Those with a genetic makeup suitable to their new environment survived to reproduce. Over time, certain traits (such as dark skin color for those closer to the equator) dominated. Genesis alone offers a reasonable answer to the origin of the races and languages.

40. – God has given us the leaves of the trees as medicine (Ezekiel 47:12Revelation 22:2). Ancient cultures utilized many herbal remedies. Today, modern medicine has rediscovered what the Bible has said all along – there are healing compounds found in plants.

41. – Healthy dietary laws (Leviticus 11:9-12). Scripture states that we should avoid those sea creatures which do not have fins or scales. We now know that bottom-feeders (those with no scales or fins) tend to consume waste and are likely to carry disease.

42. – The Bible warns against eating birds of prey (Leviticus 11:13-19). Scientists now recognize that those birds which eat carrion (putrefying flesh), often spread disease.

43. – Avoid swine (Deuteronomy 14:8). Not so long ago, science learned that eating undercooked pork causes an infection of parasites called trichinosis. Now consider this: the Bible forbid the eating of swine more than 3,000 years before we learned how to cook pork safely.

44. – Radical environmentalism foreseen (Romans 1:25). Two thousand years ago, God’s Word stated that many would worship and serve creation rather than the Creator. Today, nature is revered as “Mother” and naturalism is enshrined.

45. – Black holes and dark matter anticipated (Matthew 25:30Jude 1:13Isaiah 50:3). Cosmologists now speculate that over 98% of the known universe is comprised of dark matter, with dark energy and black holes. A black hole’s gravitational field is so strong that nothing, not even light, escapes. Beyond the expanding universe there is no measured radiation and therefore only outer darkness exists. These theories paint a seemingly accurate description of what the Bible calls “outer darkness” or “the blackness of darkness forever.”

46. – The Second Law of Thermodynamics (Entropy) explained (Psalm 102:25-26). This law states that everything in the universe is running down, deteriorating, constantly becoming less and less orderly. Entropy (disorder) entered when mankind rebelled against God – resulting in the curse (Genesis 3:17Romans 8:20-22). Historically most people believed the universe was unchangeable. Yet modern science verifies that the universe is “grow(ing) old like a garment” (Hebrews 1:11). Evolution directly contradicts this law.

47. – Cain’s wife discovered (Genesis 5:4). Skeptics point out that Cain had no one to marry – therefore the Bible must be false. However, the Bible states plainly that Adam and Eve had other sons and daughters. Cain married his sister.

48. – Incest laws established (Leviticus 18:6). To marry near of kin in the ancient world was common. Yet, beginning about 1500 B.C., God forbid this practice. The reason is simple – the genetic mutations (resulting from the curse) had a cumulative effect. Though Cain could safely marry his sister because the genetic pool was still relatively pure at that time, by Moses’ day the genetic errors had swelled. Today, geneticists confirm that the risk of passing on a genetic abnormality to your child is much greater if you marry a close relative because relatives are more likely to carry the same defective gene. If they procreate, their offspring are more apt to have this defect expressed.

49. – Genetic mixing of different seeds forbidden (Leviticus 19:19Deuteronomy 22:9). The Bible warns against mixing seeds – as this will result in an inferior or dangerous crop. There is now growing evidence that unnatural, genetically engineered crops may be harmful.

50. – Hydrological cycle described (Ecclesiastes 1:7Jeremiah 10:13Amos 9:6). Four thousand years ago the Bible declared that God “draws up drops of water, which distill as rain from the mist, which the clouds drop down and pour abundantly on man” (Job 36:27-28). The ancients observed mighty rivers flowing into the ocean, but they could not conceive why the sea level never rose. Though they observed rainfall, they had only quaint theories as to its origin. Meteorologists now understand that the hydrological cycle consists of evaporation, atmospheric transportation, distillation, and precipitation.
 
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Posted by on July 13, 2017 in academics, archaeology, astronomy, Bible, church, controversial issues, creation, education, faith, Genetics, history, illness, Justice, leadership, science, theology

 

Other Books To Read

1. Much To Talk About Vol. 1
2. Much To Talk About Vol. 2
2. Archaeology and the Unwary Believer
 
 

Recommended Reading

Just some books that should be on anyone’s reading list

1. The Battle of Beginnings — Dr. Del Ratzsch

2. Unearthing Atlantis — Dr. Charles Pellegrino

3. Return to Sodom & Gomorrah —Same

4. On the reliability of the Old Testament — K.A. Kitchen

5. The Bible in Its World —Same

6. Old Testament Times — Dr. R.K. Harrison

7. New Testament Times —Dr. Merril C. Tenney

8. Archaeology & the New Testament — DR. John McRay

9. A History of Christianity, 2 Vols. —Dr. Kenneth Scott Latourette

10. Ancient Egypt & the O.T. —Dr. John Currid

11. Israel in Egypt — Dr. James Hoffmeier

12. The Riddles of the Exodus — James Long

13. The Flood — Dr.Rehwinkel

14. Path of the Pole — Dr. Charles Hapgood

15. Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings — Same

16. Is the Bible True — Jeffery Sheler

17. Lost Discoveries —Dick Teresi

18. In the Beginning— Alister McGrath

19. Fabricating Jesus— Dr. Craig Evans

20. Early Christian Doctrines—J.N.D. Kelly
21. The Rape of Nanking by Iris Chang
22. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee by Dee Brown
23. The Long Death by Ralph K. Andrist
24. Band of Brothers by Stephen Ambrose
25. Bible History by Alfred Edersheim
26. The Death of Common Sense by Philip K. Howard
27. The Professor and the Madman by Simon Winchestor
28. A History of the American People by Paul Johnson
29. A History of the Arab Peoples by Albert Hourani
30. The Kingdom of the Cults by Walter Martin
31. The Final Theory by Mark McCutcheon
32. Unwrapping the Pharaohs by Ashton & Down
33. The Road to Ubar by Nicholas Clapp
34. The Destruction of Atlantis by Frank Joseph
35. The History of Christianity, 2 vols. by Justo Gonzalez
36. Manners and Customs of the Bible by Packer & Tenney

37. The Historical Jesus by Gary R. Habermas

38. The Concise History of Free Masonry by Robert Freke Gould

39. Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader by Bradley K. Martin

40. The Aquariums of Pyongyang by Kang Chol-Hwan & Pierre Rigoulot

41. The End of Reason by Ravi Zacharias

42. The Lost Books of the Bible (everyone should read this for themselves and see why they were never included in the biblical canon)

43. The Land of the Bible by Yohanan Aharoni

44. Archaeology of the Land of the Bible by Amihai Mazar

45. The New Testament Documents by F. F. Bruce

46. Israel & the Nations by F. F. Bruce

47. Israelite Religions by Richard S. Hess

48. The Catholic Church, (a short history) by Hans Kung

49. Knowing and Doing the Will of God by J. I. packer

50. The Case for Christ by Lee Strobel

51. Civilization Before Greece & Rome by H.W.F. Saggs

52. Ninevah and Its Remains by Austen Henry Layard

53. The Discoveries by Alan Lightman

54. Mesopotamia and the Bible edited by Mark W. Chavalas & K. Lawson Younger Jr.

55. Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia by Karen Rhea Nejat

56. The City of David by Raymond Weill & L.H. Vincent

57. The Ancient Near East vols. 1 & 2 ed. by James B. Pritchard

58. Old Testament Parallels by Victor H. Matthews & Don C. Benjamin

59. Libraries in the Ancient World by Lionel Casson

60. Africa & the Bible by Edwin M. Yamauchi

61. The Portable Seminary  Gen. Editor David Horton

62. Christian Counseling By Dr. Gary Collins

63. The Dawkins Delusion By Alistar & Joanna McGrath

64. The Politically Incorrect Guide to the Bible By Robert J. Hutchinson

65. What Are the Dead Sea Scrolls & Why Do They Matter by David Noel Freedman

66. The Search for the 12 Apostles By William Steuart McBirnie

67. The First Human by Ann Gibbons

68. Biblical Creationism By Henry Morris

69. The Long War against God By Hemry Morris

70. Kingdom Coming By Michelle Goldberg

71. The Truth About Mohammad by Robert Spencer

72. Learning Theology with the Church Fathers by Christopher A. Hall

73. Giving the Sense edited by Drs. Howard Jr. & Grisanti

74. The Old Testament Documents by Walter Kaiser

75. Civilizations of the Near East (4 vols) Edited by Jack M. Sasson

76.  Biblical Authority by Draper & Keathley

77. God Has Spoken by J.I. Packer

78. 100 Reasons to Trust the Old Testament by Murray D. Hiebert

79. Eusebius: the church history trans. & comm. by Paul L. Maier

80. Searching for the Original Bible by Dr. Randall Price
81. A Century of Biblical Archaeology by P.R.S. Moorey
82. Persia and the Bible by Edwin Yamauchi
83. The Archaeology of Jersualem by W. Harold Mare
84. Science & Secrets or Early medicine by Jorgen Thorwald
85. Underworld by Graham Hancock (for evidence only)
86. Heaven’s Mirror by Graham Hancock (for evidence only)
87. Big Bang by Simon Singh (for a history of astronomy only)
88. The Biblical Period from Abraham to Ezra by W. F. Albright
89. The Archaeology of Palestine by W. F. Albright
90. History, Archaeology & Christian Humanism by W.F. Albright
91.The Bible & Modern Scholarship by Sir Frederic Kenyon
92. Our Bible & the Ancient Manuscripts by Sir Frederic Kenyon
93. Biblical Archaeology by G. Ernest Wright
94. Fresh Light from the Ancient Monuments by A.H. Sayce
95. The Ancent Egyptians: Their life and Customs by Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson
 
 

In The News 22

#1. http://www.christianpost.com/news/111-californians-die-under-controversial-right-to-die-law-most-were-cancer-patients-190115/

California’s Department of Public Health released statistics revealing that 111 terminally ill people chose to end their lives last year under the state’s right-to-die law, despite pleas in the past from Roman Catholic leaders and influential California pastor Rick Warren

We understand why people want this bill to exist, not just in California adn the other States that have them, but all around the world. We understand that people do not want to endure pain, suffering nor add to their mounting medical bills or put their family in poverty because of those bills. YET, we also know what God says about killing– Thou Shalt Not Kill– and while many theologians and pastors have come to agree that the word kill here means murder, patient’s with terminal illnesses should not kill themselves. They, and the successful suicidal person, are actually murdering themselves and violating God’s command.

Then while we do not think that those who kill themselves go straight to hell, why take the chance? God is in charge of who gets into heaven and there is no reason to violate God’s word and then expect him to welcome you with open arms. It is best to let the disease run its course and ask God to help you endure.

#2. http://www.christianpost.com/news/lgbt-mega-donor-reveals-next-goal-punish-the-wicked-gay-marriage-opponents-190307/

A prominent LGBT activist who has donated more than anyone else to LGBT causes has said that “wicked” people who advocate for laws protecting the religious freedom of conservative Christians to act in accordance with their views on marriage and sexuality need to be “punished.”

What can we say, those who demand entrance into an institution they have no right to enter turn around and try to beat up those who do have that right. They just prove that they do not belong in the institution and need great attitude adjustments before consideration of their ‘application’.  The governments and courts have not done society any favors by their favorable rulings for the LGBTQ crowd.

#3. http://www.christianpost.com/news/why-are-more-evangelicals-supporting-gay-marriage-190123/

Polls showing rising numbers of evangelicals supporting same-sex marriage show the influence of culture and failures of churches, according to two experts interviewed by The Christian Post

This is just wrong. Evangelicals should be standing up for God’s standards of right and wrong, good and evil, moral and immorality instead of listening to the unchurched world distort the issues and lead people to sin. There is no such thing as discrimination when it comes to those standards.

#4. http://www.christianpost.com/news/most-anglicans-in-uk-see-nothing-wrong-with-premarital-sex-gay-relationships-despite-church-doctrine-189941/

A strong majority of Anglicans in the U.K. say they no longer adhere to biblical beliefs on premarital sex and same-sex relationships, according to the British Social Attitudes survey

That is because they want to do what they want and do not want to do what God wants

#5. http://www.christianpost.com/news/hostility-christian-sexuality-beliefs-report-frc-190595/

A new report produced by one of the nation’s leading social conservative activist organization claims that there has been 76 percent increase in religious freedom violations and a 114 percent surge in documented hostility toward Christian views on marriage and sexuality in the last three years.

They are actually hating Jesus and God not Christians. God made the rules, Christians just brig the message and it is up to the listener how they will respond.

#6. http://www.christianpost.com/news/russell-moore-franklin-graham-orgs-urge-trump-to-tackle-severe-persecution-of-sudanese-christians-190263/

Several leading evangelical organizations in America have urged U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson to stand up to the destruction of churches and severe forms of persecution Christians and others face in Sudan

It is not just the government’s job to tackle these issues. Then, just because a believer is persecuted or n trouble does not mean that other believers do not help them

#7. http://www.christianpost.com/news/evangelicals-shocked-justin-welbys-award-honoring-christian-lesbian-singer-vicky-beeching-189933/

An evangelical Christian group in the U.K. says it’s in “shock” that Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby’s “outstanding service to the church” award has been given to Christian lesbian singer Vicky Beeching.

When the church does not stand up for God’s ways, who will?

 

 

Ancient Medicine

One of the best books I have read on ancient medicine is Science and Secrets of Early Medicine by Jurgen Thorwald. It covers the civilizations of Egypt, Babylonia, India, China , Mexico and Peru and it gives a well-balanced look at the ancient world’s practice of medicine.

I will put a few quotes here from the work and then move on to articles that have been found on the internet. The page numbers follow each quote:

–“An anonymous Sumerian physician, who lived toward the end of the third millennium BC, decided to collect and record, for his colleagues and students, his more valuable medical prescriptions.  He prepared a tablet of moist clay…sharpened a reed stylus…and wrote down, in the cuneiform script of his day, more than a dozen of his favorite remedies. This clay document, the oldest medical ‘handbook’ known to man, lay buried in the Nippur ruins for more than four thousand years'” (pg. 107)

–“It turned out that the doctors of a nation, whose artists had been able to re[present the female body  with such accuracy…had also dealt knowledgeably with the weaknesses and afflictions of that body. They described hemorrhages, menstrual irregularities, tumours, inflammations of various abdominal organs and of the breasts, and displacements of the womb…” (pg. 99)

–“Father Bernardino de Sahagun, who drew up a definitive account of the Aztec Empire, noted that in addition to priests, soothsayers and magicians, there were genuine apothecaries and physicians among the Aztecs. To some extent the specialization of the doctors is reminiscent of Ancient Egypt. In particular, there were specialists in the treatment of wounds. They sewed edges of wounds with human hair, set fractures and applied splints. In case o fbroken bones which would not heal, they inserted splintersof wood of a certain type of stone pine into the bones. With small obsidian knives they opened abscesses of the tonsils… ” (pg. 269-70)

–“Texts scratched on bones of the Shang period…show that the Shang priests in the second millennium BC, devoted great care to identifying symptoms and diseases. There are references to various complaints of the head, to maladies of the eyes, the teeth, the organs of the throat, the nose, legs, digestive system, kidneys and bladder. Above all there are mentions of infectious diseases and epidemics” (pg. 234)

–{Hammurabi’s law} “If a physician has healed a man’s eye of a severe wound by employing a bronze instrument, or has opened the spot in a man’s eye with a bronze instrument and so healed the man’s eye, he is to be paid 10 shekel for his work. (pg.124)

#1. http://explorable.com/ancient-medicine

Due to the hot and dry climate in Egypt, ancient papyri have survived intact, allowing historians to study the sophisticated techniques employed by Ancient Egyptian physicians. Whilst couched in magic and ritual, the Egyptians possessed a great deal of knowledge of healing herbs and repairing physical injuries, amongst the normal population and the workers responsible for building the great monuments of that nation.

Cropped version of image of a prosthetic toe from ancient Egypt, now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo

Cropped version of image of a prosthetic toe from ancient Egypt, now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo (Released from Copyright)

Modern research has shown that these builders were not slaves but highly respected and well-treated freemen, and the care and treatment given for injuries and afflictions was centuries ahead of its time. Early paid retirement, in case of injury, and sick leave were some of the farsighted policies adopted by Ancient Egyptian medicine, luxuries that would rarely be enjoyed by most workers until well into the 20th Century.

The Egyptians made sure that the laborers were fed a diet rich in radish, garlic and onion, which modern researchers have found to be extremely rich in Raphanin, Allicin and Allistatin. These powerful natural antibiotics would certainly help to prevent outbreaks of disease in the often-crowded conditions of the workcamps.

#2. http://www.ancient.eu.com/medicine/

Mesopotamia

The oldest Babylonian texts on medicine date back to the Old Babylonian period in the first half of the 2nd millennium BC. The most extensive Babylonian medical text, however, is the Diagnostic Handbook written by the physician Esagil-kin-apli of Borsippa, during the reign of the Babylonian king Adad-apla-iddina (1069- 1046 BC). Along with contemporary ancient Egyptian medicine, the Babylonians introduced the concepts of diagnosis, prognosis, physical examination, and medical prescriptions.

In addition, the Diagnostic Handbook introduced the methods of therapy and etiology and the use of empiricism, logic and rationality in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. The text contains a list of medical symptoms and often detailed empirical observations along with logical rules used in combining observed symptoms on the body of a patient with its diagnosis and prognosis.

India

The Atharvaveda, a sacred text of Hinduism dating from the Early Iron Age, is the first Indian text dealing with medicine, like the medicine of the Ancient Near East based on concepts of the exorcism of demons and magic. The Atharvaveda also contain prescriptions of herbs for various ailments. The use of herbs to treat ailments would later form a large part of Ayurveda.

In the first millennium BCE, there emerges in post-Vedic India the traditional medicine system known as Ayurveda, meaning the “complete knowledge for long life”. Its two most famous texts belong to the schools of Charaka, born c. 600 BCE, and Sushruta, born 600 BCE. The earliest foundations of Ayurveda were built on a synthesis of traditional herbal practices together with a massive addition of theoretical conceptualizations, new nosologies and new therapies dating from about 400 BCE onwards, and coming out of the communities of thinkers who included the Buddha and others.

#3. http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/ancient-cultures/daily-life-and-practice/medicine-in-the-ancient-world/

Surgical techniques in the ancient world could be surprisingly advanced. The famous Roman physician Galen (c. 129–199 A.D.), who was born in the city of Pergamum near the Asklepion, is generally regarded as the most accomplished medical researcher of the Roman world, and some of his surgical procedures would not be seen again until modern times. He successfully conducted cataract surgeries by inserting a needle behind the lens of the eye in order to remove the cataract, and his described methods of preparing a clean operating theater reveal a keen awareness of contagion.1 While some of Galen’s practices and theories are still followed and praised by physicians today, others, such as his rejection of the stomach wall as having no role in digestion, have been proven by modern science to be erroneous…

Archaeology has further illuminated medical practices in the ancient world. Certain skeletons discovered during excavations demonstrate evidence of rather astonishing surgical successes. Perhaps the most startling evidence of sophisticated ancient surgery can be found in skulls that show signs of trepanation, a procedure still used today that is performed by drilling a hole into the skull to relieve intracranial pressure. Trepanated skulls from ancient societies in Central and South America, Africa, Asia, Europe and the Near and Middle East have been found that perhaps date back as far as the Mesolithic period, about 12,000 years ago.2 By examining the bone regrowth around the surgical hole in the skull, scientists are able to determine how long the patient survived after undergoing the procedure. Some patients died immediately, some lived only a few weeks, but others seem to have healed completely…

Excavations have also revealed evidence of sophisticated dental practices in antiquity. In a mass grave at Horvat en Ziq in the northern Negev desert of Israel, a skull dating to about 200 B.C. was found that contains one of the earliest known dental fillings. A 2.5-millimeter bronze wire had been inserted into the tooth’s canal.**** Elsewhere, skulls recovered from the catacombs in Rome, which were in use during the first through the fifth centuries A.D., exhibit some rather pricey dental work: Several were recovered that have gold fillings.

#4. http://library.thinkquest.org/C004203/science/science04.htm

When one is down with a flu, one can easily walk over to a clinic nearby for a checkup and obtain some medicine for flu. This medicine can come in many forms, such as in syrup and in tablets. Ever wondered what medicine in the past was like then?”

It was discovered that the ancient Egyptians were among the first to use certain herbs and drugs as a form of medicine. They also knew how to set and splint fractured bones, using skills that were so advanced and even rather similar to the way many doctors treat their patients today. More surprisingly, there is evidence that some surgery was also practiced in ancient Egypt. However, during that time, there was no knowledge of the use of aesthesia and the method used to render a patient unconscious was to strike him on the head with a mallet! Imagine how dangerous that was! (How many patients that blow could have killed!)

Surgery was also said to have been practised by the Babylonians of Mesopotamia, though the techniques used were more advanced than the Egyptians’. There was even a collection of laws set up and compiled in “The Code of Hammurabi” in about 1800 BC, which listed the penalties that had to be paid by unsuccessful surgeons. For instance, if the patient lost an eye because of faulty surgery, the surgeon had to pull out his own eye too! It’s definitely a wonder how some of the Babylonians still dared to practice medicine given such strict laws!

#5. http://www.indiana.edu/~ancmed/meso.htm

Mesopotamian Medicine: The Sources

Most of the information available to modern scholars comes from cuneiform tablets. There are no useful pictorial representations that have survived in ancient Mesopotamian art, nor has a significant amount of skeletal material yet been analyzed. Unfortunately, while an abundance of cuneiform tablets have survived from ancient Mesopotamia, relatively few are concerned with medical issues. Many of the tablets that do mention medical practices have survived from the library of Asshurbanipal, the last great king of Assyria. The library of Asshurbanipal was housed in the king’s palace at Nineveh, and when the palace was burned by invaders, around 20,000 clay tablets were baked (and thereby preserved) by the great fire. In the early 1920’s, the 660 medical tablets from the library of Asshurbanipal were published by Cambell Thompson. Other medical texts have been published more recently. For example, Franz Kocher has published a series of volumes called Die Babylonishch-Assyrische Medizin. The first four of these contain 420 tablets found from sites other than Assurbanipal’s library, including the library of a medical practitioner (an asipu) from Neo-Assyrian Assur, as well as Middle Assyrian and Middle Babylonian texts. The remaining two volumes of Kocher’s work augment Campbell Thompson, providing new joins of broken fragments and much material uncovered in the British Museum. At least one more volume of Nineveh texts has been announced. In addition, the series Spaet Babylonische Texte aus Uruk contains some 30 medical texts not included in Kocher’s work. The vast majority of these tablets are prescriptions, but there are a few series of tablets that contained entries that were directly related to one another, and these have been labeled “treatises.” The largest surviving such medical treatise from ancient Mesopotamia is known as “Treatise of Medical Diagnosis and Prognoses.” The text of this treatise consists of 40 tablets collected and studied by the French scholar R. Labat. Although the oldest surviving copy of this treatise dates to around 1600 BCE, the information contained in the text is an amalgamation of several centuries of Mesopotamian medical knowledge. The diagnostic treatise is organized in head to toe order with separate subsections covering convulsive disorders, gynecology and pediatrics. It is unfortunate that the antiquated translations available at present to the non-specialist make ancient Mesopotamian medical texts sound like excerpts from a sorceror’s handbook. In fact, as recent research is showing, the descriptions of diseases contained in the diagnostic treatise demonstrate a keen ability to observe and are usually astute. Virtually all expected diseases can be found described in parts of the diagnostic treatise, when those parts are fully preserved, as they are for neurology, fevers, worms and flukes, VD and skin lesions. The medical texts are, moreover, essentially rational, and some of the treatments, as for example those designed for excessive bleeding (where all the plants mentioned can be easily identified), are essentially the same as modern treatments for the same condition.

#6. http://classics.mit.edu/Hippocrates/ancimed.html

Part One

Whoever having undertaken to speak or write on Medicine, have first laid down for themselves some hypothesis to their argument, such as hot, or cold, or moist, or dry, or whatever else they choose (thus reducing their subject within a narrow compass, and supposing only one or two original causes of diseases or of death among mankind), are all clearly mistaken in much that they say; and this is the more reprehensible as relating to an art which all men avail themselves of on the most important occasions, and the good operators and practitioners in which they hold in especial honor. For there are practitioners, some bad and some far otherwise, which, if there had been no such thing as Medicine, and if nothing had been investigated or found out in it, would not have been the case, but all would have been equally unskilled and ignorant of it, and everything concerning the sick would have been directed by chance. But now it is not so; for, as in all the other arts, those who practise them differ much from one another in dexterity and knowledge, so is it in like manner with Medicine. Wherefore I have not thought that it stood in need of an empty hypothesis, like those subjects which are occult and dubious, in attempting to handle which it is necessary to use some hypothesis; as, for example, with regard to things above us and things below the earth; if any one should treat of these and undertake to declare how they are constituted, the reader or hearer could not find out, whether what is delivered be true or false; for there is nothing which can be referred to in order to discover the truth.

Part Two

But all these requisites belong of old to Medicine, and an origin and way have been found out, by which many and elegant discoveries have been made, during a length of time, and others will yet be found out, if a person possessed of the proper ability, and knowing those discoveries which have been made, should proceed from them to prosecute his investigations. But whoever, rejecting and despising all these, attempts to pursue another course and form of inquiry, and says he has discovered anything, is deceived himself and deceives others, for the thing is impossible. And for what reason it is impossible, I will now endeavor to explain, by stating and showing what the art really is. From this it will be manifest that discoveries cannot possibly be made in any other way. And most especially, it appears to me, that whoever treats of this art should treat of things which are familiar to the common people. For of nothing else will such a one have to inquire or treat, but of the diseases under which the common people have labored, which diseases and the causes of their origin and departure, their increase and decline, illiterate persons cannot easily find out themselves, but still it is easy for them to understand these things when discovered and expounded by others. For it is nothing more than that every one is put in mind of what had occurred to himself. But whoever does not reach the capacity of the illiterate vulgar and fails to make them listen to him, misses his mark. Wherefore, then, there is no necessity for any hypothesis.

#7. http://citizenscientistsleague.com/2012/04/14/ancient-egyptian-dentistry/

“The earliest evidence of ancient dentistry we have is an amazingly detailed dental work on a mummy from ancient Egypt that archaeologists have dated to 2000 BCE. The work shows intricate gold work around the teeth. This mummy was found with two donor teeth that had holes drilled into them. Wires were strung through the holes and then around the neighboring teeth.” Source: metalonmetal blog.

I’m not quite convinced that this is the “earliest evidence” of ancient dentistry. I think there are some written texts that go back even further than 2000 BCE. Also, in the spirit of full disclosure I also have not located the site where this was found. Still, This is a fascinating item. The close-up below comes from the site dentalassistant.net.

#8. http://www.thedentalclinic.com/dental-expert/dentistry-through-the-ages.html

The roots of dentistry extend back many millennia across the globe. Evidence from the Indus Valley Civilization in Pakistan reveals dentistry being practiced as early as 7,000 BC, with practitioners using bow drills to cure tooth ailments. By contrast, a Sumerian text from 5,000 BC cites teeth worms as the source of dental decay. Evidence of this belief has also been found in ancient China, India, Japan and Egypt, in the writings of Homer, and as late as 1300 AD in the writings of surgeon Guy to Chauliac.

2,600 BC marked the death of Hesy-Re, the Egyptian scribe who has been called the first “dentist”. Remains of some ancient Egyptians and Greco-Romans also reveal early attempts at dental prosthetics and surgery, and it is believed that Egyptians practiced oral surgery from as early as 2,500 BC. Later, between 1,700 and 1,550, the Egyptian text Edwin Smith Papyrus makes references to various tooth maladies and remedies. In the 18th century BC, the Babylonian Code of Hammurabi makes two references to dental extraction as a form of punishment.

Early tooth replacement took place in Phoenicia, now Lebanon, as missing teeth were replaced with animal teeth and bound in place using cord.

Between 500 and 300 BC, both Hippocrates and Aristotle wrote about dentistry, including the eruption patterns of teeth, treating teeth decay and gum disease, extracting teeth using forceps, and using wires to stabilize loose teeth and fractured jaws. However, the Etruscans, in what is now Northern and Central Italy, were the first to truly perform restorative dentistry, with everything from dental bridges to partial dentures of gold appearing in Etruscan tombs, dating to 500 BC. The Romans later captured the Etruscans and adopted elements of their culture. Thus, dentistry became a Roman practice as well. Around 100 BC, Roman writer Cornelius Celcus wrote extensively about oral hygiene, stabilising loose teeth, and treating various dental ailments.

In the Eastern world, there is evidence in China of the use of silver amalgam as fillings as early as 200 BC. Oral medicine was also commonplace in early Japan and India. Dental surgery, however, was not practiced in many Islamic countries, because of the Qur’an proscription against mutilations of the body. As a result, preventative dentistry became particularly important in these areas. Writings of Arabic physicians such as Avicenna and Abū al-Qāsim, demonstrate the importance of the cleaning of teeth.

#9. http://www.bda.org/museum/the-story-of-dentistry/ancient-modern/ancient-dentistry.aspx

The torment of toothache is surely something we all have in common with our ancestors. Interestingly, those living in Ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome may not have had as many cavities as modern societies due to the lack of sugar and processed food. However, their teeth were worn down by their coarse diet, which required much chewing. In Egypt, archaeologists have discovered sand in preserved food and this must have exacerbated the problem. Natural teeth were valued if an article in the Roman Law of the Twelve Tables, c 450BC, is to be believed. It states: ‘Whoever shall cause the tooth of a free man to be knocked out shall pay a fine of three hundred as’.

The Romans are well known for their cleanliness and this may have extended to their teeth with Celsus (c 25BC–c 50AD) recommending that city dwellers should wash their mouths out in the morning. Ancient recipes for toothpaste survive with ingredients such as bones, egg shells, pumice and myrrh although there is no mention of toothbrushes. The Greeks used mint, still a famililar ingredient in toothpaste for us today.

It was during the Roman period that toothache sufferers gained their own patron saint. Apollonia was the daughter of a magistrate in Alexandria who stood up for her Christian faith. Dionysius says ‘a mob… broke her teeth and threatened to burn her alive’. As she was being consumed by the fire she called out that those who suffered from toothache and invoked her name would be relieved of their suffering.

Early cures for toothache may seem strange to us. The Ancient Egyptians wore amulets whilst the Roman writer Pliny recommended finding a frog by moonlight and asking it to take away your toothache. A further cure, according to Scribonius Largus, doctor to the Emperor Claudius in the first century involved ‘fumigations made with the seeds of the hyoscyamus scattered on burning charcoal…followed by rinsings of the mouth with hot water, in this way… small worms are expelled’. The belief that cavities are caused by toothworms is a long standing one, held by the Ancient Egyptians right up to the 17th century. If these cures seem bizarre, we should remember some similarities – a mouthrinse for the tongue in Ancient Egypt contained honey, just the same as our cure for a sore throat.

References to dentists appear in Ancient Egyptian papyri and in a couple of tombs but what they did, if anything, is not clear: they could just have been honorary titles. In the Roman empire, extractions were undertaken by physicians. They used crude forceps, and dentures were made from ivory, bone or boxwood! Getting a good fit must have been a problem as Horace (c 65 BC–c 8BC) describes two witches running so fast that one of their denture’s fell out. The Romans’ predecessors in northern Italy, the Etruscans, made beautiful bridges of ox bone with gold wire, the quality of which was not to be seen again for well over a millenium.

#10 http://www.1800dentist.com/ancient-dentistry/

9,000 Year Old Dentistry in Pakistan

The land that forms modern day Pakistan has been home to a plethora of ancient cultures including the advanced, Indus Valley Civilization. One researcher team examined skulls excavated from a graveyard in the country’s Baluchistan region. Carbon dating revealed those bones to over 9,000 years old and a closer study revealed that 11 skulls had nearly perfectly drilled dental holes in their teeth. This discovery has indicated that the art of dentistry is actually 4,000 years older than previously estimated.

According to reports, the reason for the drilled holes are unknown, but the fact that it was not just for decoration is clear as some of the teeth were hard to reach molars. One of the holes was one-seventh of an inch (3.5 millimeters) deep, which is quite unfathomable for a time when sedation dentistry was not an option.

Greeks, the First Orthodontists

During the reign of the Greek Empire, Hippocrates and Aristotle were known as having some of the biggest brains out there. Hippocrates was an ancient physician (known for being the force behind the Hippocratic Oath still upheld in the medical community today) and Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and polymath. Together, the two often discussed malocclusion and how gentle force could be applied to gradually shift teeth. Those chats and their early experimentation helped pave the wave for today’s field of orthodontics.

The two produced some of the earliest writing about dentistry and explored topics including the pattern in which teeth erupted and gum disease. Rumor has it the two also performed work on teeth impacted by tooth decay, tooth extractions and used wires to stabilize teeth and jawbones.

European Barber/Dentist

Facial hair is a favorite male accessory, but the need for soldiers to be clean shaven (as decreed by Alexander the Great) helped launch barbers as a major profession. With each new generation of leaders, barbers evolved to deliver the hottest trend and they were completely content with everything hair until the clergy (the medical experts of the 1100 century) needed their help with bloodletting (the cure for all ails of the time period). Only after the clergy were banned from drawing blood at the council of Tours in 1163, did the burden fall onto barbers. Eventually, they also became the folks responsible for implementing dental care (http://www.barberpole.com/artof.htm).

For hundreds of years, barbers provided those in need with tooth extractions to stop pain and remove teeth that had chronic infections. That changed when patients complained that the barber delivered dental treatments were making them sick and British Parliament officially severed the alliance between the barbers and surgeons in June, 1745.

 
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Posted by on July 3, 2017 in academics, archaeology, Bible, church, comparative religions, education, faith, history, illness, leadership, theology

 
 
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