Archaeology In Brief

19 Feb


Today scholars of the Christian apocrypha are challenging this view of the loss and rediscovery of apocryphal texts,” explains Burke. “It has become increasingly clear that the Christian apocrypha were composed and transmitted throughout Christian history, not just in antiquity.”

This would not be news as believers know that false teaching continued long after the 1st century as we endure it today

“It has become increasingly clear that Christianity began as a multitude of voices, each one declaring itself right and others wrong,” states Burke, who rejects the idea that these gospels were “lost” through intentional suppression by the “winning” tradition, the Roman Church.

The first half is not true. Christianity began with one voice, Christ’s and carried on via his disciples and future believers. The other voices are false teachers and not a part of Christianity at all. They should not be identified as Christian. The last half is correct. The ‘lost gospels’ were identified as false teaching and relegated to the few people who accept them over the truth.


On a hill known as Göbekli Tepe (“Potbelly Hill”) in southeastern Turkey, excavations led by Klaus Schmidt uncovered several large megalithic enclosures that date between 10,000 and 8000 B.C.E., the dawn of civilization and the Neolithic age. Each of these circular enclosures, which many have described as Turkey’s “Stonehenge,” consists of 10 to 12 massive stone pillars surrounding two larger monoliths positioned in the middle of the structure. There are no village remains at or near the Göbekli Tepe ruins, suggesting that the unique site was a ceremonial center exclusively used for the practice of the Neolithic religion of local hunter-gatherer groups

We will disagree. Every time an archaeologist cannot explain a building, figurine etc., they automatically call it a temple, cult site or a goddess. This practice is a good example of eisegesis and should be ignored. As far as we can tell Gobekli Tepe is a pre-flood remain and may serve other purposes since many other buildings cold have been destroyed that would have helped in identifying its purpose.


For 4,000 years Lilith has wandered the earth, figuring in the mythic imaginations of writers, artists and poets. Her dark origins lie in Babylonian demonology, where amulets and incantations were used to counter the sinister powers of this winged spirit who preyed on pregnant women and infants. Lilith next migrated to the world of the ancient Hittites, Egyptians, Israelites and Greeks. She makes a solitary appearance in the Bible, as a wilderness demon shunned by the prophet Isaiah. In the Middle Ages she reappears in Jewish sources as the dreadful first wife of Adam.

Lilith has nothing to do with Adam or the Garden of Eden. Links to those two are pure fantasy.


An early copy of the 10 Commandments sold for $850,000 last November.

Dated by some to c. 300–500 C.E., this marble tablet may be the oldest stone copy of the 10 Commandments—even though it displays only nine of the traditional 10 Commandments from Exodus 20 and Deuteronomy 5.1 The 10 Commandments stone omits the command to not take the Lord’s name in vain (Exodus 20:7; Deuteronomy 5:11) and includes instead a charge to build a temple on Mt. Gerizim. Although this addition is likely unfamiliar to many Christians and Jews, it reflects the particular religious beliefs of the Samaritans. The tablet, which is written in the Samaritan script, likely adorned a Samaritan synagogue.

That is a lot of money for a piece of stone. Note that this set of commandments doe snot belong to the Jewish temple or the any Christian Church.


The Hebrew language has evolved over time. Even during the course of writing the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), Biblical Hebrew changed, which is apparent when you compare early Biblical texts with late ones.

How was the Bible written during and after the Babylonian Exile? Did the Biblical authors continue to use the Hebrew language even though they were living in lands where Hebrew was no longer the common language? In his article “How Hebrew Became a Holy Language,” published in the January/February 2017 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review, Jan Joosten explains that Biblical Hebrew did not go out of use. Rather the Jewish population continued to use it—and even attached a new reverence to it.

Most likely this is correct. People do not start to lose their native language to about the second or third generation in a new land.


The Hebrew word that is traditionally translated as “rib” is tsela‘. Ziony Zevit, Distinguished Professor of Biblical Literature and Northwest Semitic Languages at American Jewish University in Bel-Air, California, believes that this translation is wrong, as do many scholars. It was first translated as “rib” in the Septuagint, a Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible from the mid-third century B.C.E. However, a more careful reading of the Hebrew word for “rib” in the Adam and Eve story suggests that Eve was created from another, very different, part of Adam’s anatomy—his os baculum (penis bone).

We will go with the word ‘rib’ for there is no real evidence to contradict what earlier translators have recorded and for a possible argument, referring to the penis bone would tend to make women feel that they are only for sexual pleasure and nothing else.Then the change in translation comes from a subjective perspective not from anything concrete.


4 responses to “Archaeology In Brief

  1. T.T.

    February 19, 2017 at 8:08 pm

    Not sure if this is related. I’ve been reading thru some of the gnostic texts from Nag Hammadi. Though they’re interesting, it’s pretty clear that they are not in tone with the recognized gospel texts, and some are clear forgeries falsely attributed to apostles. I don’t see why people think some scandal occurred to have them covered up. The early Church fathers like Irenaeus were right to shun them from doctrine.

    • theologyarchaeology

      February 19, 2017 at 11:29 pm

      Because some people, like Bart Ehrman, need conspiracies to keep their unbelief going.

  2. Bijbelvorsers

    February 23, 2017 at 4:33 pm

    Several writers or the reactor in this article also do not see the difference between Christendom and Christianity, where we in history may find already soon after Jesus his death false teachers who brought in Greek-Roman philosophy and managed to poison Christianity so that from the Nicean Council we could see that Christendom got its birth and the majority of Christians where lured in human doctrines, like the Trinity and could find a religion addapted to their local attributes and customs taking over many pagan rituals of the regions where the papal clergy found her way to mislead people into their religion.

  3. theologyarchaeology

    February 23, 2017 at 11:17 pm

    The author of this forum is well aware of that issue

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